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Sections: Prologue | The Segregation Age (1900–1939) | World War II and also Message War (1940–1949) | Civil Rights Era (1950–1963) | The Civil Rights Act of 1964 | Immediate Impact of the Civil Rights Act | Epilogue

The Day They Changed Their Minds. New York: NAACP, March, 1960. Pamphlet. NAACP Records, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress (107.00.00) Courtesy of the NAACP

The NAACP’s legal strategy against segregated education and learning culminated in the 1954 Supreme Court’s landnote Brown v. Board of Education decision. African Americans gained the formal, if not the practical, right to research alongside their white peers in primary and also second colleges. The decision sustained an intransigent, violent resistance in the time of which Southern claims provided a selection of strategies to evade the legislation.

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In the summer of 1955, a surge of anti-black violence included the kidnapping and also brutal murder of fourteen-year-old Emmett Till, a crime that provoked widespreview and assertive protests from babsence and white Americans. By December 1955, the Montgomery, Alabama, bus boycott led by Martin Luther King, Jr., started a protracted project of nonviolent civil disobedience to protest segregation that attracted nationwide and also international attention.

Throughout 1956, a group of Southern senators and also congressmen signed the “Southern Manifesto,” vowing resistance to racial integration by all “lawful indicates.” Resistance heightened in 1957–1958 throughout the crisis over integration at Little Rock’s Central High School. At the very same time, the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights led a successful drive for passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and ongoing to push for even stronger law. NAACP Youth Council chapters staged sit-ins at whites-just lunch counters, sparking a motion versus segregation in public accommodations throughout the South in 1960. Nonviolent straight activity enhanced in the time of the presidency of John F. Kennedy, beginning through the 1961 Freedom Rides.

Hundreds of demonstrations erupted in cities and communities throughout the nation. National and also worldwide media coverage of the use of fire hoses and attack dogs against son protesters precipitated a crisis in the Kennedy management, which it could not overlook. The bombings and also riots in Birmingham, Alabama, on May 11, 1963, compelled Kennedy to speak to in federal troops.

On June 19, 1963, the president sent out a substantial civil civil liberties bill to Congress. The March on Washington for Jobs and also Freedom on August 28 rooffered public assistance for the pending bill. After the president’s assassination on November 22, the fate of Kennedy’s bill was in the hands of his vice president and also follower, Lyndon B. Johnboy, and the United States Congress.

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Roy Wilkins (1901−1981) was born in St. Louis, the child of a minister. While attending the College of Minnesota he offered as secretary of the neighborhood NAACP. After graduation he started occupational as the editor of the Kansas City Call, a babsence weekly. The headline coverage Wilkins provided the NAACP in the Call attracted the attention of Wtransform White, that hired him as NAACP assistant secretary in 1931.

From 1934 to 1949, Wilkins served concurrently as editor of The Crisis, the NAACP’s quarterly journal. In 1950 he ended up being NAACP administrator and coestablished the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights. He prospered Walter White as executive secretary of the NAACP in 1955. Under his management the NAACP completed college desegregation, significant civil legal rights legislation, and also its optimal membership. Wilkins reexhausted in 1977 as the longest serving NAACP leader.


In February 1952 the Leadership Conference on Civil Rights (LCCR) organized a meeting in Washington to comment on Senate Rule XXII on cloture, a procedure that Southern senators used to blutz-heilmann.infok civil legal rights bills in debate by filibuster. In 1952, Rule XXII compelled a two-thirds vote of the whole Senate to invoke cloture to break a filibuster. Senators had also liberalized Rule XXII by subjecting “any type of measure, motion, or various other matter” to cloture. At the start of each brand-new Congress the LCCR lobbied for a revision of Rule XXII to lessen the obstacles to passage of civil legal rights bills. Joseph Rauh was the chief strategist for the LCCR’s Rule XXII projects.

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Educator and also civil rights activist Harry Tyboy Moore was one of the earliest leaders to be assassinated throughout the contemporary phase of the civil legal rights motion. Moore was a leader in voter registration efforts and also worked as a statewide organizer for the NAACP in Florida and also focused on establishing branches in rural lutz-heilmann.infoations. He began his career teaching in the public institution device in Brevard County, Florida, first in an elementary college and later as major of Mims Elementary School. He and also his wife, Harriette, that likewise taught college, joined the NAACP in 1933. They organized a lutz-heilmann.infoal chapter in Brevard and also filed a lawsuit in 1937 complex the unequal salaries of black and also white teachers, the initially of its type in the South. In 1951, Moore and also his wife were the victims of Ku Klux Klan terror, as soon as a bomb exploded in their house.