What evolutionary benefit in human beings does lacking a left brachiocephalic artery administer, also though are two brachiocephalic veins?
In 27% of patients, the left common carotid artery originates from the brachiocephalic trunk
In 2.5% of patients, each of the 4 arteries originate individually from the arch of the aorta
in 1.2% there are right and also left brachiocephalic trunks
Based on 1000 patients
As to why,
Why anypoint. Why execute we have the nerves of our eyes running to a main point in front of the photoreceptors, quite than behind in squid? (Actually, it's bereason tright here were 2 alternatives and also our evolutionary line decided the one that provides us a blind spot) At some suggest the alternative was made, and once climbing mt improbable you can't go earlier, only up
Op · 8y
Actually, it's bereason there were 2 alternatives and also our evolutionary line made a decision the one that offers us a blind spot
On that very same note, what evolutionary advantage does a blind spot provide?
Continue this thread
· 8y · edited 8y
Vertebrate Paleontology | Crocodylians | Human being Anatomy
You'll find tons of variation, as the resource /u/duckpearl gave claims. Tbelow are actually rather a couple of records on variation in the brachiocephalic trunk and also issues it deserve to cause.
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Just about every anatomical structure can be variable to a degree, however blood vessels seem to be especially at risk to taking "unusual" paths. They obviously have developmental pathways yet additionally seem to take a route of leastern resistance as they prosper. Some variations seem to be from a vessel offshooting at a convenient place, so to soptimal, to ensure a framework has an enough blood supply without interfering through (or being interfered with) various other frameworks in the body.
The heart basically starts out as a tube simply posterior to the head. It folds, descends, and also rotates in the time of breakthrough, and in the end it isn't symmetrical in the thorax. The blood vessels have to thrive in such a way that accommodays this readjust. It's likewise why the left represent laryngeal nerve takes such a circuitous path around the arch of the aorta; it's not an instraight path to the larynx as soon as the heart is positioned best listed below the head. The anterior surconfront of the heart is created mainly by the right ventricle, to offer you an principle of exactly how points gain twisted roughly. The aorta then comes out of the left ventricle slightly posterior and also to the ideal of the pulmonary trunk. It arches over the pulmonary arteries to the left and posteriorly to become the descending aorta, which lies slightly to the left of the midline. That suggests the left widespread carotid and left subclavian arteries have the right to take a much more direct route while the right common carotid and also subclavian have to go even more instraight to start their courses, notably crossing the trachea. The brachiocephalic trunk is an easy way to erected those arteries in a better area and also clear the trachea. That's not required for the left side, as the arch of the aorta is currently traveling to the left of the trachea.
However, namong this is so essential that the variations described in the abovementioned source necessarily make a emerging embryo non-viable and they regularly persist. It's why hospitals mainly carry out an ultrasound before a tracheotomy and also vascular surgeons will regularly perform a CT angiogram or MRI before heart surgical procedure if possible.
You'll watch a similar asymmetry in the superior vena cava, where the best brachiocephalic vein is brief and tasks dorsocaudally (it's basically the extension of the SVC after the juncture via the left brachiocephalic vein). In comparison, the left brachiocephalic vein is joining via the SVC at an oblique angle bereason it's traveling medially throughout the vessels coming off of the arch of the aorta.
Another location wright here you typically have variation is in the coronary arteries. The posterior interventricular artery, or posterior descfinishing artery, is generally offered by the ideal coronary artery. However, it's not unprevalent for it to be supplied by the circumflex artery, which is component of the left coronary artery. It's also generally provided by an anastomosis of both the appropriate and left coronary arteries.
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For what it's worth, in the 50+ bodies I've checked out in gross anatomy labs, I can't respeak to any kind of striking variations in the brachiocephalic trunk, but I have actually seen numerous variations in the supremacy of coronary arteries. I've also watched weird things around the celiac trunk and premium mesenteric artery in the abdomen. The location is very vascularized and also there are many anastomoses, so variation there is pretty widespread.