The GUT Age is when 3 ofthe 4 fundamental pressures are unified, however gravity has actually come to be unique.There are a course of theories referred to as Grand also Unified Theories (GUTs) thatattempt to explain all forces other than gravity in a solitary structure.The leading kind are so-referred to as string theories, and also some are partiallyeffective, however tright here are even more details to be worked out. Theoristswould certainly say that in the GUT Period the gravity force "froze out" of the universe.The GUT Era lasted from 10-43 s to 10-38s. Near the finish of this era, grand also unified theories predict thatthe universe cooled to the allude that the nuclear solid pressure began tofreeze out, leaving 3 fundamental forces: gravity, the solid force,and the still unified electroweak pressure. This "phase transition"released a substantial amount of power, resulting in area to undergo a fast inflation.In a mere 10-36 s, pieces of our universethe dimension of an atomic nucleus might have actually grown to the dimension of our solardevice. We will later on comment on observations of the cosmos that seemto require such extreme inflation. Keep in mind that this inflation is veryexceptionally big compared to the rate of light, yet again, area itself is whatis widening, so it does not need to obey the speed limit of the speedof light.Electroweak EraThroughout this era, just the electromagneticand also nuclear weak forces are still combined. The temperature of theuniverse at this phase is even more than 1015K, and also tbelow are no plain pposts yet, simply pholoads and pure power.We carry out have actually a finish theory that can be provided to understand also the universeat the end of this era. By the moment of 10-10s, the temperature cools listed below 1015 K,and also finally, the last of the basic forces, electromagnetic and also nuclearweak pressures, end up being distinct. We have actually also done particle physicsexperiments at energies matching to a temperature of 1015K, so we can probe the Big Bang conditions experimentally from 10-10s onward.Pwrite-up EraWhen the four basic forceswere finally unique, simple pshort articles can start to form. However before,both issue and anti-matter were created in virtually equal numbers, createdout of the energetic pholots existing at that time. Once both typesof matter were created, a pshort article would certainly not go extremely far prior to it met upthrough its anti-ppost and also annihilated to come to be pure energy again.During this era, pshort articles continually were created and also damaged until,by 0.001 s (one millisecond), the world had actually expanded and cooled farsufficient (to 1012 K) that development and also destructionof this kind ended. For some factor, the world developed slightlymore issue pshort articles than anti-issue pposts. If the numbershad actually been precisely the very same, the pshort articles would eventually annihilate entirelyand also tright here would be only pholots in the universe. This slight asymmetryfor issue (1 billion and also 1 proloads for each 1 billion anti-protons) leftus via all of the baryonic matter that we uncover this day.Age of NucleosynthesisWhen the universe was just 1millisecond old, nuclei were warm enough and also thick enough to fusage to createheavier elements, yet it was so dense that the nuclei broke acomponent againas soon as they created. This fusion and breakup ongoing till about3 minutes after the Big Bang, once the universe cooled enough (109K) that fusion ended. At this suggest, 75% of baryonic issue was inthe form of hydrogen, 25% in the develop of helium, and map quantities werein the create of various other atoms, greatly lithium. One of the great successesof the Big Bang concept is that it predicts just the rightamount of these various creates of matter. At the finish of theEra of Nucleosynthesis, the cosmos consisted of the "primordial" mix ofhydrogen, helium, and lithium that went into making the initially stars.All heavier aspects have been created by fusion inside of stars and also duringsupernova explosions.Era of NucleiDuring the next 500,000 years,the world was as well hot to create neutral atoms, and every one of the particleswere in the develop of atomic nuclei (hydrogen, helium and a few lithium nuclei)and also totally free electrons. As long as the world was consisted of of thesetotally ionized pposts, it was a mostly featureless bevery one of hot plasmathat could not condense to develop galaxies or stars. Throughout this time,the pwrite-ups and also pholoads (light) were locked into an equilibrium in whichthe pholots might not escape. Finally, after 500,000 years, the universecooresulted in 3000 K, and hydrogen and also helium nuclei started to capture the freeelectrons. At this stage, pholoads might not react through the electronsother than in narrow energy varieties, so the majority of of the gas ended up being transparent andthe pholots were cost-free at last to stream out of the plasma and also cross thecosmos.It is these pholoads thatwe check out now as the cosmic microwave background,which we will certainly discuss soon. When we look out into the world,we have the right to never check out ago in time past 500,000 years, which is the moment oflast scattering of pholots. Earlier than this, we might only seethe hot surface of the universe.Age of AtomsAfter the photons decoupledfrom the matter, and the nuclei started combining via the electrons, wereach the era of atoms. The initially hot atoms progressively assembledand cooled into protogalactic clouds. The first galaxies created byabout 1 billion years, which marks the finish of the Age of Atoms and also thestart of the Era of Galaxies:Evidence for the Big BangToday we view severallines of proof that the Big Bang really taken place. One of the earliestdiscoveries was made appropriate below at Bell Labs in New Jersey by Penzias andWilboy, that got the Nobel Prize for their work. Using a radiotelescope in 1963 to track down some undesirable noise in their receivingdevice, they uncovered that when looking at the blank skies, no matter in whatdirection, they were receiving radiation through a temperature of 3 K.After discussions via some astronomers at Princeton College, they realizedthat they were seeing the 3000 K photons from the end of the era of nuclei,which has cooled because that time 500,000 years after the Big Bang, to acool 3 K. This is known as the Cosmic MicrowaveBackground. Because then, the COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer)satellite has measured this background radiation and also found it to preciselyfit a perfect blackbody spectrum at a temperature of 2.73 K.This perfect blackbody radiation coming from anywhere is strong evidencethat we understand the universe at least earlier to 500,000 years before theBig Bang.To probe even better earlier,to just 1 millisecond after the Big Bang, we deserve to look at the proportionof facets developed in the Big Bang. In order to understand just how a lot heliumthe world need to have made, we must understand the specific temperatureof the Big Bang. Luckily, we deserve to acquire that directly from the cosmicmicrowave background temperature. Using this exactly well-known temperature,2.73 K, we can deduce that the universe should have made 24% helium, exactlywhat we observe. We have the right to also predictthe ratios of various other isotopes, which aget agree to a impressive level.Lumpiness of the UniverseWhen we look atthe universe this day, we are instantly struck by the fact that all of theissue is clumped into galaxies, via nearly no matter between the galaxies.We learned last time that tright here is additionally structure on vastly larger scalesin the create of knots of superclusters and also huge voids of empty space betweenthem. We can currently research this lumpiness of the world to discover outmore details about the earliest moments of the Big Bang. The keyis to look at the lumpiness, or anisotropy, of the Big Bang radiation.If the world were also smooth, there would certainly be few or no galaxies.Rather, the issue would certainly be spreview smoothly throughout the universe.However before, if the universe were also lumpy beforehand, all the matter wouldbe focused in small clumps, possibly in the develop of black holes oftremendous mass.Tright here is now a spacecraftcalled MAP (Microwave Anisotropy Probe) that is researching the lumpinessof the cosmic microwave background, but many kind of groundbased experiments andsome spacecraft have actually likewise tried to find fluctuations. It turns out thatthe fluctuations are extremely tiny -- for a long time they seemed too tiny.During the expansion of the cosmos, parts of the cosmos were no longerin call and also should have actually cooled separately. Yet we uncover that theyare precisely the exact same temperature.Also, in the at an early stage Big Bangtright here need to have actually been quantum fluctuations that, after widening for 14billion years, should still be on a lot smaller scales than galaxies.Why execute we check out such large-scale structure in the cosmos, yet relativelysmooth structure on smaller sized scales?Both of these difficultieshave the right to be described by the inflation concept.We currently discussed that inflation would have actually been driven by the decouplingof the solid nuclear force from the electroweak pressure. Throughout thistime, in your area adjacent parts of the universe would have increased far fasterthan the speed of light and ended up at oppolutz-heilmann.infosite ends of the cosmos.Yet these far distant components of the world can have actually the very same initialtemperature. Also, the tiny quantum fluctuations would certainly have grownin scale to bigger than the solar system in a tiny fractivity of a second,and thus the fluctuations would exist on the huge scale we watch today.Finally, another featureof inflation is to modeprice the thickness of the universe to make room appearexceptionally close to level. Imagine a balloon, whose surchallenge is curved, thenblow up the balloon to an enormous size. As the dimension rises, thesurface gets in your area flatter and flatter. This is pertained to thethickness of the universe. Respeak to that we disputed last time the criticalthickness of the universe, and shelp that the world shows up to be almostflat. Inflation can aid that by taking an initially open or closedroom and also making it so large that it appears almost flat. What westill need to understand is wbelow is all the matter needed to make thecosmos level. We shelp that there is far also bit plain matter(probably just 1 to 10% of the critical density), while tright here is likewise darkissue to assist out, yet issue and also dark matter together just accounts forabout 30% of that required to flatten or cshed the universe. Currenttheories suggest that perhaps a brand-new develop of power, darkpower, deserve to make up the distinction, however it has not been shownyet.Did the Big Bang Really Happen?Most scientiststhis particular day would agree that the Big Bang is a successful concept, for which thereare at leastern 2 bits of very clear observational evidence: 1) the cosmicmicrowave background radiation and 2) the family member amounts of hydrogen,helium, and also various other elements in the world. However, from the abovearguments you have the right to watch that numerous aspects of the Big Bang and also relatedconcerns are not interpreted. From time to time you will see newspaperheadlines that claim that the Big Bang is wrong, but those clintends invariablyrevolve out to be disagreements over details, not standard arguments inthe concept in its entirety. One observational reality stands out in favorof somepoint choose the Big Bang -- the sky is dark at night! If weimagine that the cosmos is infinite in all directions, then obviouslythere must be an limitless number of galaxies. If so, no matter whichdirection we look in the night sky, our line of sight should intersect astar in a galaxy somewbelow. It is choose being in a dense woodland, inwhich no matter where you look you deserve to just view tree-trunks, never theopen up sky. This argument is now called Olber"sParadox, after a Germale scientist in the 1800"s. The universeis not like that -- the sky is darkat night -- so the observable universecannot be limitless. The text casts this as showing that the universeshould have a distinctive start, given that we have the right to look earlier only to the cosmichorizon (14 billion years ago), but tright here is another possible horizon --the one set by the development of the universe. If the cosmos isexpanding such that the outer edges are moving amethod at higher than therate of light, then we have the right to just watch a restricted part of the universe upto a recession speed of the rate of light. So the world may extendbeyond this light-speed horizon.In fact, if the expansionwere to slow-moving down, as we intend as a result of gravity slowing the development, thenthe light-speed horizon would move exterior with time, and new galaxieswould certainly appear inside our observable universe. However before, recontact thatwe mentioned last time that the cosmos might be increasing its price ofexpansion through the activity of some kind of anti-gravity producing darkpower. If that is the instance, then galaxies that we cansee currently, at the edge of the cosmos, would rate up and go exterior thespeed-limit horizon.So the cosmos is incredibly stvariety,and also it seems to get stranger with each new discovery. But astronomerswill proceed to devise new observations to explore the world, and newtheories to describe it, and new particle experiments to verify the theories.But reflect for a minute on the following question from the first lecture:Timeout to thinkSome world think that our tiny physical dimension in the large cosmos makesus insignificant.
You are watching: Why did the era of nuclei end when the universe was about 300,000 years old?
See more: Why Is Meiosis Referred To As Reduction Division '? Attention Required!
Others think that our capacity to learn about thewondersof the universe provides us as people significance despite our tiny dimension.What execute you think?When we look at exactly how muchwe know (or think we know) around the cosmos -- points that seemed completelyunknowable only a couple of decades back -- we need to marvel at the power ofour intelligence to understand the world in which we live. Perhapsyou will assist mankind deal with some of the mysteries.