Early investigators believed the oxygen produced by photoman-made plants came from carbon dioxide. In truth, it comes from _____.

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A) water

B) glucose

C) air

D) electrons from NADPH


If photosynthesizing green algae are offered through CO2 containing heavy oxygen (18O), later analysis will display that every one of the following molecules developed by the algae contain 18O EXCEPT _____.

A) glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P)

B) glucose

C) ribushed bisphosphate (RuBP)

D) O2


Every ecodevice have to have actually _____.

A) autotrophs and heterotrophs

B) producers and major consumers

C) photosynthesizers

D) autotrophs


When oxygen is released as a result of photosynthesis, it is a direct by-product of _____.

A) dividing water molecules

B) chemiosmosis

C) the electron move mechanism of photodevice I

D) the electron transfer mechanism of photosystem II


Which of the adhering to statements is a correct difference in between autotrophs and heterotrophs?

A) Cellular respiration is distinctive to heterotrophs.

B) Only heterotrophs have mitochondria.

C) Autotrophs, but not heterotrophs, can nourish themselves beginning via CO2 and various other nutrients that are not natural.

D) Only heterotrophs call for oxygen.


C) Autotrophs, however not heterotrophs, have the right to nourish themselves beginning via CO2 and various other nutrients that are not natural.


The figure reflects the absorption spectrum for chlorophyll a and the activity spectrum for photosynthesis. Why are they different?

A) Eco-friendly and yellow wavelengths inhilittle the absorption of red and also blue wavelengths.

B) Oxygen offered off during photosynthesis interferes through the absorption of light.

C) Other pigments absorb light in addition to chlorophyll a.

D) Aerobic bacteria take up oxygen, which changes the measurement of the price of photosynthesis.


What wavesize of light in the number is most effective in driving photosynthesis?

A) 420 mm

B) 575 mm

C) 625 mm

D) 730 mm


Theodor W. Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae with light that passed via a prism, hence exposing different segments of algae to various wavelengths of light. He added aerobic bacteria and also then detailed in which locations the bacteria congregated. He listed that the biggest teams were uncovered in the locations illuminated by the red and blue light.

What did Engelmann conclude about the congregation of bacteria in the red and also blue areas?

A) Bacteria congregated in these locations due to a boost in the temperature of the red and also blue light.

B) Bacteria congregated in these areas bereason these areas had the a lot of oxygen being released.

C) Bacteria are attracted to red and also blue light and therefore these wavelengths are even more reenergetic than other wavelengths.

D) Bacteria congregated in these areas because of an increase in the temperature caused by a rise in photosynthesis.


B) Bacteria congregated in these areas bereason these locations had the the majority of oxygen being released.


12

Theodor W. Engelmann illuminated a filament of algae through light that passed through a prism, for this reason exposing different segments of algae to various wavelengths of light. He included aerobic bacteria and also then detailed in which locations the bacteria congregated. He noted that the largest teams were discovered in the locations illuminated by the red and also blue light.

An outcome of Engelmann"s experiment was to help identify the connection in between _____.

A) wavelengths of light and also the rate of aerobic respiration

B) wavelengths of light and the amount of heat released

C) wavelengths of light and also the price of photosynthesis

D) the concentration of carbon dioxide and also the rate of photosynthesis


C) wavelengths of light and also the price of photosynthesis


13

A spaceship is designed to assistance pet life for a multiyear trip to the external planets of the solar device. Plants will be grown to administer oxygen and also to recycle carbon dioxide. Due to the fact that the spaceship will be too far from the sunlight for photosynthesis, an synthetic light source will be required.

What wavelengths of light should be provided to maximize plant growth with a minimum of energy expenditure?

A) full-spectrum white light

B) green light

C) a mixture of blue and also red light

D) UV light


C) a mixture of blue and also red light


14

A spaceship is designed to assistance pet life for a multiyear voyage to the outer planets of the solar mechanism. Plants will certainly be grown to carry out oxygen and also to recycle carbon dioxide. Since the spaceship will certainly be too far from the sun for photosynthesis, an fabricated light resource will certainly be required.

Suppose a plant has actually a distinctive photosynthetic pigment and the leaves of this plant show up to be reddish yellow. What wavelengths of visible light are took in by this pigment?

A) red and yellow

B) blue and violet

C) green and yellow

D) blue, green, and red


B) blue and violet


15

Halobacterium has a photofabricated membrane that shows up purple. Its photoartificial action spectrum is the inverse of the activity spectrum for green plants. (That is, the Halobacterium action spectrum has a height wright here the green plant action spectrum has a tunstable.) What wavelengths of light do the Halobacterium photoman-made pigments absorb?

A) red and also yellow

B) blue, green, and also red

C) green and yellow

D) blue and also red


C) green and yellow


16

Why are tright here a number of structurally various pigments in the reaction centers of photosystems?

A) Excited electrons should pass via several pigments before they can be transferred to electron acceptors of the electron move chain.

B) This arrangement allows the plant to absorb light energy of a variety of wavelengths.

C) They permit the plant to absorb more photons from light power, all of which are at the same wavelength.

D) They permit the reaction center to exmention electrons to a higher energy level.


B) This plan permits the plant to absorb light energy of a variety of wavelengths.


17

If pigments from a details species of plant are extracted and based on paper chromatography, which of the following is a lot of likely?

A) Paper chromatography for the plant would isolate a single band also of pigment that is characteristic of that certain plant.

B) Paper chromatography would certainly separate the pigments from a particular plant right into numerous bands.

C) The isolated pigments would certainly be some shade of green.

D) Paper chromatography would isolate just the pigments that reflect green light.


B) Paper chromatography would certainly sepaprice the pigments from a certain plant right into several bands.


18

In fall, the leaves of deciduous trees readjust colors. This is bereason chlorophyll is degraded and _____.

A) carotenoids and also various other pigments are still current in the leaves

B) the degraded chlorophyll transforms right into many other colors

C) water supply to the leaves has actually been reduced

D) sugars are sent to the majority of of the cells of the leaves


A) carotenoids and also other pigments are still present in the leaves


19

What event acsuppliers energy absorption by chlorophyll (or various other pigment molecules of the antenna complex)?

A) ATP is synthesized from the energy soaked up.

B) A carboxylation reactivity of the Calvin cycle occurs.

C) Electrons are stripped from NADPH.

D) An electron is excited.


D) An electron is excited.


20

As electrons are passed via the system of electron carriers linked with photodevice II, they shed power. What happens to this energy?

A) It excites electrons of the reaction center of photodevice I.

B) It is lost as heat.

C) It is supplied to create and maintain a proton gradient.

D) It is supplied to phosphorylate NAD+ to NADPH, the molecule that accepts electrons from photomechanism I.


C) It is used to create and also maintain a proton gradient.


21

The final electron acceptor associated through photomechanism I is _____.

A) oxygen

B) water

C) NADP

D) NADPH


C) NADP


22

The electrons of photosystem II are excited and transferred to electron carriers. From which molecule or structure execute the photosystem II replacement electrons come?

A) the electron carrier, plastocyanin

B) photomechanism I

C) water

D) oxygen


C) water


23

In the thylakoid membranes, the pigment molecules in a light-harvesting facility _____.

A) separation water and release oxygen from the reaction-center chlorophyll

B) absorb and also carry light power to the reaction-facility chlorophyll

C) synthesize ATP from ADP and i

D) move electrons to ferredoxin and also then NADPH


B) absorb and also move light power to the reaction-facility chlorophyll


24

Which of the complying with are straight linked with photomechanism I?

A) receiving electrons from the thylakoid membrane electron move chain

B) generation of molecular oxygen

C) extractivity of hydrogen electrons from the splitting of water

D) passing electrons to the cytochrome complex


A) receiving electrons from the thylakoid membrane electron deliver chain


25

Some photoartificial organisms contain chloroplasts that lack photomechanism II, yet are able to endure. The ideal means to detect the absence of photomechanism II in these organisms would be to _____.

A) determine if they have actually thylakoids in the chloroplasts

B) test for liberation of O2 in the light

C) test for CO2 fixation in the dark

D) perform experiments to generate an activity spectrum


B) test for liberation of O2 in the light


26

What are the products of linear electron flow?

A) warmth and also fluorescence

B) ATP and also P700

C) ATP and NADPH

D) ADP and NADP+


C) ATP and NADPH


27

As a research study scientist, you meacertain the amount of ATP and also NADPH consumed by the Calvin cycle in 1 hour. You uncover that 30,000 molecules of ATP were consumed, however just 20,000 molecules of NADPH were consumed. Wright here did the added ATP molecules come from?

A) photomechanism II

B) photomechanism I

C) cyclic electron flow

D) straight electron flow


C) cyclic electron flow


28

Assume a thylakoid is someexactly how punctured so that the internal of the thylakoid is no much longer separated from the stroma. This damages will many directly impact the _____.

A) splitting of water

B) flow of electrons from photodevice II to photosystem I

C) synthesis of ATP

D) reduction of NADP+


C) synthesis of ATP


29

In a plant cell, wright here are the ATP synthase complexes located?

A) thylakoid membrane only

B) inner mitochondrial membrane only

C) thylakoid membrane and also inner mitochondrial membrane

D) thylakoid membrane and plasma membrane


C) thylakoid membrane and inner mitochondrial membrane


30

In mitochondria, chemiosmosis moves prolots from the matrix right into the intermembrane space, whereas in chloroplasts, chemiosmosis moves prolots from the _____.

A) matrix to the stroma

B) stroma to the thylakoid space

C) intermembrane area to the matrix

D) thylakoid area to the stroma


B) stroma to the thylakoid space


31

Which of the adhering to statements ideal describes the partnership between photosynthesis and respiration?

A) Respiration runs the biochemical pathmethods of photosynthesis in reverse.

B) Photosynthesis stores energy in complicated organic molecules; respiration releases energy from facility organic molecules

C) Photosynthesis occurs only in plants; respiration occurs just in animals.

D) Photosynthesis is catabolic; respiration is anabolic.


B) Photosynthesis stores power in complex organic molecules; respiration releases energy from facility organic molecules


32

In photofabricated cells, synthesis of ATP by the chemiosmotic mechanism occurs in the time of _____.

A) photosynthesis only

B) respiration only

C) photosynthesis and also respiration

D) neither photosynthesis nor respiration


C) photosynthesis and also respiration


33

Carbon dioxide is break-up to develop oxygen gas and also carbon compounds _____.

A) during photosynthesis

B) throughout respiration

C) in the time of photosynthesis and respiration

D) in neither photosynthesis nor respiration


D) in neither photosynthesis nor respiration


34

What is the relationship in between the wavesize of light and the quantity of energy per photon?

A) They have a straight, straight relationship.

B) They are inversely connected.

C) They are logarithmically related.

D) They are sepaprice sensations.


B) They are inversely related.


35

P680+ is said to be the strongest organic oxidizing agent. Given its feature, why is this necessary?

A) It is the receptor for the most excited electron in either photomechanism of photosynthesis.

B) It is the molecule that transfers electrons to plastoquinone (Pq) of the electron move mechanism.

C) It transfers its electrons to reduce NADP+ to NADPH.

D) It obtains electrons from the oxygen atom in a water molecule, so it must have a stronger attraction for electrons than oxygen has.


D) It obtains electrons from the oxygen atom in a water molecule, so it must have actually a more powerful attraction for electrons than oxygen has.


36

Carotenoids are frequently uncovered in foodstuffs that are thought about to have actually antioxidant properties in humale nutrition. What related function do they have actually in plants?

A) They serve as accessory pigments to rise light absorption.

B) They safeguard against oxidative damages from too much light energy.

C) They shield the sensitive chromosomes of the plant from harmful ultraviolet radiation.

D) They reflect orange light and enhance red light absorption by chlorophyll.


B) They safeguard versus oxidative damage from too much light energy.


37

In a plant, the reactions that produce molecular oxygen (O2) take location in _____.

A) the light reactions alone

B) the Calvin cycle alone

C) the light reactions and also the Calvin cycle

D) neither the light reactions nor the Calvin cycle


A) the light reactions alone


38

The build-up of cost-free oxygen in Earth"s setting started via the beginning of _____.

A) life and respiratory metabolism

B) cyanobacteria utilizing photomechanism II

C) chloroplasts in photoartificial eukaryotic algae

D) land plants


B) cyanobacteria using photodevice II


39

In its mechanism, photophosphorylation is a lot of equivalent to _____.

A) substrate-level phosphorylation in glycolysis

B) oxidative phosphorylation in cellular respiration

C) the Calvin cycle

D) reduction of NADP+


B) oxidative phosphorylation in cellular respiration


40

Which process is a lot of straight moved by light energy?

A) creation of a pH gradient by pumping proloads throughout the thylakoid membrane

B) carbon fixation in the stroma

C) reduction of NADP+ molecules

D) removal of electrons from chlorophyll molecules


D) removal of electrons from chlorophyll molecules


41

A gardener is concerned that her greenresidence is getting also hot from also a lot light and seeks to shade her plants via colored translucent plastic sheets, the color of which enables passage of only that wavesize. What shade should she use to alleviate in its entirety light energy yet still maximize plant growth?

A) green

B) blue

C) orange

D) Any color will job-related equally well.


B) blue


42

A flask containing photoartificial green algae and also a manage flask containing water with no algae are both inserted under a financial institution of lights, which are collection to cycle between 12 hrs of light and also 12 hours of dark. The dissolved oxygen concentrations in both flasks are monitored. Predict what the relative liquified oxygen concentrations will certainly be in the flask via algae compared to the control flask. The liquified oxygen in the flask through algae will certainly _____.

A) always be higher

B) constantly be lower

C) be better in the light, yet the very same in the dark

D) be better in the light, however reduced in the dark


D) be higher in the light, however lower in the dark


43

Which of the adhering to are assets of the light reactions of photosynthesis that are utilized in the Calvin cycle?

A) CO2 and also glucose

B) H2O and also O2

C) ADP, i, and also NADP+

D) ATP and NADPH


D) ATP and NADPH


44

Where does the Calvin cycle take place?

A) stroma of the chloroplast

B) thylakoid membrane

C) inner of the thylakoid (thylakoid space)

D) outer membrane of the chloroplast


A) stroma of the chloroplast


45

What is the major attribute of the Calvin cycle?

A) use NADPH to release carbon dioxide

B) separation water and release oxygen

C) deliver RuBP out of the chloroplast

D) synthedimension easy sugars from carbon dioxide


D) synthesize basic sugars from carbon dioxide


46

In the process of carbon fixation, RuBP attaches a CO2 to create a six-carbon molecule, which is then break-up to produce 2 molecules of 3-phosphoglyceprice. After phosphorylation and reduction produces glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P), what more requirements to occur to complete the Calvin cycle?

A) addition of a pair of electrons from NADPH

B) rejuvenation of ATP from ADP

C) renewal of RuBP

D) renewal of NADP+


C) rebirth of RuBP


47

Refer to the number. If the carbon atom of each of the incoming CO2 molecules is labeled with a radioactive isotope of carbon, which organic molecules will be radioactively labeled after one cycle?

A) C only

B) B, C, D, and E

C) C, D, and E only

D) B and C only


B) B, C, D, and E


48

Refer to the figure. To recognize the molecule that accepts CO2, Calvin and Benkid manipulated the carbon-fixation cycle by either cutting off CO2 or cutting off light from societies of photosynthetic algae. They then measured the concentrations of assorted metabolites instantly adhering to the manipulation. How would these experiments help identify the CO2 acceptor?

A) The CO2 acceptor concentration would decrease when either the CO2 or light are cut off.

B) The CO2 acceptor concentration would certainly increase as soon as either the CO2 or light are reduced off.

C) The CO2 acceptor concentration would certainly rise once the CO2 is cut off, but decrease as soon as the light is reduced off.

D) The CO2 acceptor concentration would certainly decrease once the CO2 is reduced off, yet boost once the light is reduced off.


C) The CO2 acceptor concentration would increase when the CO2 is cut off, but decrease when the light is cut off.


49

Which of the following sequences appropriately represents the circulation of electrons in the time of photosynthesis?

A) NADPH → O2 → C O2

B) H2O → NADPH → Calvin cycle

C) NADPH → chlorophyll → Calvin cycle

D) NADPH → electron carry chain → O2


B) H2O → NADPH → Calvin cycle


50

Which of the following does NOT take place during the Calvin cycle?

A) oxidation of NADPH

B) release of oxygen

C) regeneration of the CO2 acceptor

D) usage of ATP


B) release of oxygen


51

What compound provides the reducing power for Calvin cycle reactions?

A) ATP

B) NADH

C) NADP+

D) NADPH


D) NADPH


52

What would certainly be the expected result on plants if the atmospheric CO2 concentration was doubled?

A) All plants would certainly experience enhanced rates of photosynthesis.

B) C3 plants would have actually quicker growth; C4 plants would certainly be minimally impacted.

C) C4 plants would certainly have much faster growth; C3 plants would be minimally affected.

D) C3 plants would certainly have faster growth; C4 plants would have slower development.


B) C3 plants would certainly have quicker growth; C4 plants would be minimally influenced.


53

Why are C4 plants able to photosynthedimension via no noticeable photorespiration?

A) They do not get involved in the Calvin cycle.

B) They use PEP carboxylase to initially settle CO2.

C) They conserve water more successfully.

D) They exclude oxygen from their tworries.


B) They use PEP carboxylase to initially resolve CO2


54

CAM plants save stomata closed in the daytime, therefore reducing loss of water. They deserve to carry out this bereason they _____.

A) deal with CO2 into organic acids in the time of the night

B) settle CO2 into sugars in the bundle-sheath cells

C) solve CO2 right into pyruvate in the mesophyll cells

D) usage photomechanism I and also photosystem II at night


A) deal with CO2 right into organic acids during the night


55

The alternate pathmethods of photosynthesis making use of the C4 or CAM devices are said to be compromises. Why?

A) Each one minimizes both water loss and also price of photosynthesis.

B) C4 compromises on water loss and also CAM compromises on photorespiration.

C) Both minimize photorespiration yet expfinish even more ATP in the time of carbon fixation.

D) CAM plants allow even more water loss, while C4 plants enable less CO2 into the plant.


C) Both minimize photorespiration but expend more ATP in the time of carbon fixation.


56

If plant gene alterations reason plants to be deficient in photorespiration, what would a lot of probably occur?

A) Photofabricated performance would be reduced at low light intensities.

B) Cells would carry on the Calvin cycle at a a lot sreduced rate.

C) There would certainly be even more light-induced damage to the cells.

D) Less oxygen would be created.


C) There would certainly be more light-induced damage to the cells.


57

Contrasted to C3 plants, C4 plants _____.

A) can continue to resolve CO2 also at reduced CO2 concentrations and better oxygen concentrations

B) have actually greater rates of photorespiration

C) execute not use rubisco for carbon fixation

D) make a four-carbon compound, oxaloacetate, which is then delivered to the citric acid cycle in mitochondria


A) can proceed to resolve CO2 even at lower CO2 concentrations and also higher oxygen concentrations


58

Which of the adhering to statements is true concerning the accompanying figure?

A) It represents a C4 photoartificial mechanism.

B) It represents an adaptation that maximizes photorespiration.

C) It represents a C3 photoartificial mechanism.

D) It represents a CAM photoartificial device.


A) It represents a C4 photoartificial device.


59

Referring to the accompanying number, oxygen would certainly inhibit the CO2 fixation reactions in _____.

A) cell I only

B) cell II only

C) neither cell I nor cell II

D) both cell I and cell II


B) cell II only


60

Photorespiration _____.

A) geneprices carbon dioxide and also consumes ATP and oxygen

B) geneprices ATP and also sugars and also consumes oxygen and also carbon dioxide

C) geneprices oxygen and consumes ATP, carbon dioxide, and sugars

D) consumes carbon dioxide and also generates ATP, sugars, and also oxygen


A) generates carbon dioxide and also consumes ATP and also oxygen


61

Students carried out an experiment to determine the impact of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis. They punched 40 leaf disks from spinach leaves and also offered a syringe partially filled with water to pull the gases from the leaf disks so that all leaf disks sunk to the bottom of the syringe. Ten (10) leaf disks from the syringe were inserted in each of four cups and extended via 50 ml of the remedies as shown below. All leaf disks were resting on the bottom of the cups when the experiment started. The volume of liquid in each cup and the temperature of the solutions were held continuous. All cups were put 0.5 meters from the designated light source. A large beaker of water was put in between the light and the cups to act as a heat sink to prevent a change in temperature. At the finish of 10 minutes, the number of disks floating in each cup was videotaped.

Use your expertise of the system of photosynthesis and also the information presented in the chart to recognize which of the statements below is a correct explacountry for the student"s information.

A) Cup 1 had a low rate of photosynthesis because 0.5 grams of baking soda did not carry out a enough amount of CO2.

B) Cup 2 had the greatest price of photosynthesis bereason 5 disks were floating at the finish of 10 minutes utilizing a 50 watt light bulb.

C) Cup 3 had the very same price of photosynthesis as Cup 1 bereason they had actually the same ratio of disks floating to wattage of light.

D) Cup 4 had actually the slowest rate of photosynthesis because it had the least baking soda.

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D) Cup 4 had the slowest price of photosynthesis bereason it had actually the leastern baking soda.