Authors develop a diet particularly formulated for desert regions

The authors arisen a diet for desert farming that increased harvests by increasing lipid reserves in the hepatopancreases of shrimp and enhancing the animals’ osmoregulatory capacities. This farm uses towers to aeprice and cool its well water.

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Phospholipids consist of a group of polar lipids via glycerol-3-phosphate as backbones. As major components of cell membranes, phospholipids play crucial roles in keeping normal cell framework and features and also are resources of second messengers in cell signaling. Phospholipids likewise take part in lipid metabolism and also serve as emulsifiers, facilitating neutral lipid digestion and absorption.

Shrimp are capable of manufacturing phospholipids, yet this synthesis mostly cannot meet their metabolic demands, especially in the time of their previously expansion stperiods. Therefore, phospholipids are considered essential nutrients for shrimp.

In the previous two years, the necessary nature of dietary phospholipids has actually been demonstrated for various shrimp species. Reported dietary phospholipid demands variety widely at 1 to 6.5 percent, depending upon species, animal life phase, dietary composition and the resource and also purity of phospholipids provided (Table 1).

Understanding of the functions and metabolism of phospholipids is greatly based upon understanding from mammalian and also fish study. Research concerning phospholipids in shrimp nutrition is still rare, yet some progression has been made in current a number of years.

Gong, Dietary phospholipid requirements, Table 1

SpeciesStageLevelPostlarvae SourceReference
F. chinensisjuvenile2%SLKanazawa, 1993
F. merguiensisjuvenile1-2%SLThongrod and Boonyaratpalin, 1998
F. penicillatusjuvenile1.25%PCChen and also Jenn, 1991
L. vannameipostlarvae6.5%SLCoutteau et al., 1996
juvenile3-5%SLGong et al., 2000
M. japonicuslarvae3.5-6%SLKanazawa et al., 1985
Teshima et al., 1986
Camara et al., 1997
juvenile3%SLTeshima et al., 1986
P. monodonpostlarvae1.0%SLPiedad-Pascual, 1986
juvenile1.25%PCChen, 1993
Table 1. Dietary phospholipid needs reported for commercial shrimp species.SL = soybean lecithin, COMPUTER = phosphatidylcholine

Mediator for lipid metabolism

Shrimp contain low levels of lipids, through total lipids audit for much less than 2 percent of their body weight. In shrimp muscle, phospholipids represent more than 50 percent of total lipids. They attribute largely for the formation of biomembranes once cells prosper and replicate, quite than as an power source.

Tbelow are nearly no triglycerides in shrimp muscle tworry. In shrimp hepatopancreases – where many digestion and also absorption take place, and also enzymes and energy reserves are numerous – phospholipids rank as the second major lipid class beside triglycerides.

With dietary supplementation of phospholipids, total lipids in the shrimp hepatopancreas boost while shrimp muscle lipids decrease, indicating that phospholipids facilitate lipid consumption in muscle and also storage in the hepatopancreas.

Maintaining adequate power supplies in the hepatopancreas is extremely important for shrimp under too much conditions such as regular molting, low liquified oxygen levels, or thermal stress and anxiety, when normal feed intake may be interrupted. The mobilization and utilization of these lipid stores from the hepatopancreas have the right to contribute to the boosted performance of shrimp under stressful problems.

In enhancement to synthesis, lipolysis and also incorporation right into cell membranes, phospholipids are also involved in the assembly of lipoproteins that are released to shrimp haemolymph for lipid carry. Among the lipoproteins that are not sex-specific, such as high-thickness lipoprotein, incredibly high-density lipoprotein, and female-specific lipoproteins (vitellogenin), phospholipids have been identified as the leading lipid moiety.

Because high-thickness lipoprotein seems to have actually dual attributes in both shrimp defense units and also lipid move, the question that stays is what duties phospholipids play in inducing such proteins. The topic deserves further research study.

Facilitating cholesterol availability

Molecular structure of phospholipids, two molecules, side by side.

Like phospholipids, cholesterol is also a component of biomembranes. It plays an important dual function in membrane fluidity, and is an reliable source of precursors for steroid hormones for shrimp molting, expansion, and also reproduction.

Shrimp cannot synthedimension cholesterol de novo from acetate and mevalonate, although they may have the ability to dealkylate some 28-carbon and also 29-carbon sterols to cholesterol. Thus, cholesterol is taken into consideration a critical nutrient for shrimp. Reported dietary requirements for cholesterol array from 0.12 to 2 percent of diet.

The nutritional relationship between phospholipids and cholesterol has actually been of excellent interest in shrimp society for a lengthy time. Dietary phospholipids boost not only digestion, assimilation, emulsification, and absorption of cholesterol, however likewise its move and mobilization.

Although it has been suggested that dietary phospholipids boost cholesterol availability, experiments failed to prove this hypothesis until a 2000 study by the major author and also coemployees demonstrated a very substantial interactivity (P = 0.0001) in between dietary phospholipids and also cholesterol on the growth of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles. This research proved that as levels of dietary phospholipids boosted from 0 percent to 5 percent, cholesterol needs were diminished from 0.35 percent to 0.05 percent. On the various other hand also, the phospholipid need decreased from 5 percent of the diet once no cholesterol was contained to nearly none once the dietary cholesterol level was at 0.5 percent.

These outcomes have important implications in feed formulation. With optimal phospholipids levels of 3 to 5 percent, dietary cholesterol inclusion can be reduced, and consequent feed prices deserve to be reduced without affecting shrimp performance. For research purposes, the phospholipids-cholesterol interaction need to additionally be taken right into consideration in experiment deindicators. If a basal diet consists of 0.5 percent cholesterol, the impacts of phospholipids, choline, and some other nutrients will certainly be masked.

Effective choline source

Choline is a water-soluble vitamin. It is a source of labile methyl teams, which connect via folic acid, vitamin B12, and also methionine in methyl team metabolism. Choline is likewise a precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Choline deserve to be gave with choline salts favor choline chloride or a breakdown of phosphatidylcholine by phospholipase D.

In a 2003 study by the major writer, the choline necessity for Pacific white shrimp was approximated as 871 milligrams per kilogram diet when test diets had actually no supplementation of phospholipids. However, no choline requirement was apparent once phospholipids were gave at 1.5 percent or even more of diet. The research suggested that lecithin supplementation deserve to efficiently administer adequate choline for shrimp development.

Conversely, the synthesis of phospholipids from choline might not fulfill the phospholipid requirements of shrimp. A practical application of these results in feed formulation is to supplement lecithin in the diet and also exclude choline salts as necessary.

Benefits for stressed shrimp

Phospholipids were uncovered beneficial in reducing sensitivity to osmotic tension in postlarval L. vannamei. The supplementation of 1.5 percent soybean phosphatidylcholine (PC) of 95 percent purity or marine fish roe PC of 92 percent purity considerably enhanced resistance to osmotic tension in enhancement to enhancing development.

A substantial interaction in between dietary soy phosphatidylcholine of 95 percent purity and also omega-3 extremely unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) was additionally found in raising the resistance to osmotic stress and anxiety for kuruma prawns (Marsupenaeus japonicus). At 1.5 percent soy phosphatidylcholine, resistance was obvious as soon as the shrimp got a diet that had 0.5 percent HUFA, while without dietary soy phosphatidylcholine, resistance to osmotic anxiety was noticeable at a 1.0 percent HUFA level.

Lecithin supplementation

At inland also shrimp farms in the desert of Arizona, USA, water temperature have the right to height 34 degrees-C in the summer. High temperature accelerates shrimp thrive prices and also increases molting frequency, yet have the right to additionally bring about a mass mortality dubbed “molting-fatality syndrome” from time to time.

Based on an expertise of the above, the authors arisen a diet specifically formulated for the area. The diet has actually raised lipid reserves in the hepatopancreases of shrimp and also enhanced the animals’ osmoregulatory capacities. As a result, bigger harvest sizes have actually been accomplished and molting-fatality syndrome was removed. Dietary lecithin supplementation was believed to be among the significant contributing determinants.

Beneficial mechanisms

The particular mechanisms behind the helpful results of phospholipids in stress situations, specifically osmotic anxiety, are unknown. Several feasible reasons are speculated:

Maintaining body fluid concentrations at a consistent level against an osmotic gradient requires added expenditure of energy. Dietary phospholipids facilitate shrimp lipid metabolism and also improve shrimp energy reserves and also utilization.Dietary phospholipids are nutritionally premium to neutral lipids to meet extra power demands.Na+-K+-ATPase, located at the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells, is both temperature- and salinity-dependent, and also critical for sustaining animal homeostasis. The phospholipids microsetting may play an essential role in maintaining Na+-K+-ATPase stcapability and task.


Phospholipids, the leading lipid course in shrimp’s bodies, are crucial for improving pet performance. Dietary phospholipid levels have the right to affect the dietary demands of various other nutrients, consisting of cholesterol, choline, and also fat-soluble nutrients such as vitamins A, D, E, carotenoids, and also others. The optimization of dietary supplementations for these nutrients is influenced by ecological determinants such as high temperature, low salinity, zero water exadjust, and others.

Even for soybean lecithin, the a lot of generally supplied phospholipid resource, the energetic components and nutritional relationships among them are still unclear and also should be additionally investigated. Better understanding of phospholipids’ functions in shrimp tension resistance will certainly facilitate their applications to attain higher commercial performance in shrimp farming.

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Editor’s Note: Cited references are available from the initially writer.

(Editor’s Note: This write-up was originally publimelted in the June 2004 print edition of the Global Aquaculture Advocate.)