Search databaseBooksAll DatabasesAssemblyBiocollectionsBioProjectBioSampleBioSystemsBooksClinVarConserved DomainsdbGaPdbVarGeneGenomeGEO DataSetsGEO ProfilesGTRHomoloGeneIdentical Protein Internet CatalogNucleotideOMIMPMCPopSetProteinProtein ClustersProtein Family ModelsPubChem BioAssayPubChem CompoundPubChem SubstancePubMedSNPSRAStructureTaxonomyToolKitToolKitAllToolKitBookgh Bookshelf. A organization of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

You are watching: Which part of the rami communicantes contains unmyelinated fibers

StatPearls . Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan-.



The white ramus communicans (pl. white rami communicantes), which is likewise recognized as the white connecting branch or the white interacting ramus, has preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic device. The white ramus communicans is a structure that anteriorly connects the spinal nerve to the sympathetic trunk. All preganglionic sympathetic neurons traverse through a white ramus communicans. Though sympathetic neurons emerge from the spinal cord with the ventral root to enter a white ramus, their courses after that have the right to differ in four various means. Sympathetic neurons follow the pattern of passing through the white ramus as preganglionic neurons, synapsing onto a ganglion, and then innervating their particular organs as postganglionic neurons. Eventually, these sympathetic fibers target blood vessels, sweat glands, arrector pili muscles, and also visceral organs to elicit a "fight or flight" physiological response.

Structure and Function

White rami communicantes attach preganglionic sympathetic neurons of the spinal cord to the sympathetic trunk. The sympathetic trunk has a sympathetic ganglion for each corresponding vertebral level. White rami communicantes bring company to the sympathetic outcirculation of nerves. Although white rami communicantes contain both myelinated and unmyelinated axons, they contain a higher density of myelinated axons. Hence, the term “white” in its name. White rami are lateral to the gray rami, their post-ganglionic unmyelinated sympathetic counterpart. 

White rami communicantes function ipsilaterally and appear on both sides of the spinal column. As component of the sympathetic system, white rami communicantes originate from the thoracolumbar (T1 to L2) vertebral outflows. Above the T1 and listed below the L2 vertebral outflows, white rami are absent; only gray rami exist in these areas. In the thoracic percent (T1 to T12), the thoracic nerve divides right into the anterior and also ventral rami of the thoracic nerve. White rami communicantes originate from the anterior rami of the thoracic nerve, which are additionally dubbed the intercostal nerves. In the lumbar regions wbelow white rami are discovered (L1 to L2), the white rami communicantes originate straight from the lumbar nerves.

Nerves of white rami have unique courses. Neurons that traverse via the white rami originate from the intermediolateral cell column (lateral horn of the spinal cord). The intermediolateral cell column spans from T1-L2.<1> From the intermediolateral cell column, sympathetic neurons leave the spinal cord through the ventral root and also merge at the spinal nerve via other neurons. Only sympathetic neurons then enter a white ramus communicans, which branches anteriorly from the spinal nerve onto the sympathetic trunk. The white rami communicantes carry out a route for preganglionic sympathetic neurons of the spinal nerve to enter the sympathetic trunk. From right here, neurons have the right to take one of four courses: 

Ascend or descfinish the sympathetic trunk. Without synapsing onto its corresponding sympathetic ganglion, axons deserve to ascend or descend the sympathetic trunk prior to synapsing into a ganglion of a different level. Postganglionic sympathetic nerves deserve to then take a trip to the spinal nerve using gray ramus communicans.
Go into the cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerve. In T2 to T4 vertebral levels, neurons of the white rami communicantes synapse at their corresponding sympathetic ganglion and also enter the thoracic, cardiac branches. These postganglionic neurons ultimately innervate the heart, lungs, and also trachea.
Get in the abdominopelvic splanchnic nerve. In T5 to L2, some sympathetic neurons have the right to course via the white rami communicantes and sympathetic trunk without synapsing. In T5 to T12, neurons travel with a splanchnic nerve (the better, the lesser, or the least thoracic splanchnic nerve) and synapse at a peripheral ganglion. In L1 to L2, neurons take a trip through the lumbar splanchnic nerve prior to synapsing at a peripheral ganglion. The postganglionic sympathetic neurons deserve to then proceed to innervate visceral organs, such as the stomach, liver, intestines, kidney, adrenal glands, pancreas, bladder, gonads, and also genitals.

Postganglionic entrance into a spinal nerve typically requires the gray rami communicantes. Sympathetic innervation to the heart and other visceral organs entails splanchnic nerves that directly arise from the sympathetic ganglion.

The sympathetic preganglionic neurons supported by the white rami communicantes eventually target blood vessels, sweat glands, and also arrector pili muscles. The sympathetic nerves of the splanchnic routes bring about the autonomic regulate of the heart and also visceral organs. The white rami communicantes carry out a framework that separates and also guides preganglionic sympathetic neurons right into the sympathetic trunk and also its ganglia.<2><3><4>


White rami communicantes derive from trunk neural cremainder cells. These neural cremainder cells migrate ventrally from the dorsal percentage of the neural tube and give increase to neuroblasts. A few of the sympathetic neuroblasts synapse via fibers of the spinal cord to create the white rami communicantes and other portions of the sympathetic nervous system.<5>

Blood Supply and also Lymphatics

The white rami communicantes are commonly close to the intercostal lymph nodes and also intercostal lymph vessels.


In addition to holding preganglionic sympathetic outflows of the spinal cord, such as efferent outflows, the T5 to T9 white rami communicantes can likewise contain general afferent (sensory) visceral inflows. These basic afferent visceral fibers classify as neither sympathetic nor parasympathetic; however, visceral afferent fibers tend to associate anatomically via sympathetic efferent fibers. As an outcome, signals from sensory receptors of visceral organs likewise travel through the peripheral ganglion, sympathetic trunk, and also the white rami communicantes. After traveling with the white rami communicantes and also the spinal nerve, these visceral afferent fibers then enter the spinal cord using the dorsal root of the spinal cord. Afferent visceral nerves regularly synapse onto the preganglionic sympathetic neurons located in the intermediolateral cell column.<6>


White rami communicantes host fibers that ultimately innervate cardiac tworry, arrector pili muscles, and smooth muscle of visceral organs and vasculature. 

Physiologic Variants

Physiological variations, especially those situated in the upper thoracic areas (T2 to T5), are numerous for white rami communicantes:

In the T1 level, the white rami communicantes of the spinal nerve have the right to appear medial to its equivalent gray rami communicantes. Usually, white rami are lateral to gray rami.
The horizontal distance from the sympathetic trunk to the distal suggest of a white ramus communicans deserve to selection from 2.5 to 28.5 millimeters.
Sometimes T5 have the right to also send postganglionic sympathetic neurons into the cardiothoracic nerve branches.
In T2, T3, and also T4 levels, it is possible for additional gray or white rami to extfinish to a different level ganglion of the sympathetic trunk. T2 experiences the most considerable existence of ascfinishing and also descfinishing rami.
It is possible, in truth, fairly constant (85.7%), to observe bilateral asymmeattempt as soon as comparing white and also gray rami.
When considering both gray and also white rami communicantes, among each interacting rami are supposed to enter each ganglion. However before, it is feasible for a sympathetic ganglion in T2, T3, and T4 ganglion levels to have almost everywhere from 1 to 4 communicating rami.

Surgical Considerations

Sympathectomy and also ramicotomy, the procedures of disrupting the sympathetic trunk and also the connecting branches, can be performed to attenuate the impacts of conditions such as hyperhidrosis. Compared to sympathectomy, which has been taken into consideration the “gold standard” for the therapy of idiopathic hyperhidrosis, the procedure of ramicotomy needs a much longer procedure time. It have the right to cause larger variability in the severity of compensatory sweating.<8>

Clinical Significance

Sympathectomy is the many widespread surgery supplied to fix severe hyperhidrosis. Hyperhidrosis is a problem that outcomes in excessive sweating in specific areas of the body, such as the challenge, hands, and also armpits. Several research studies have actually explored the impacts of ramicotomy in treating hyperhidrosis. One of the main side impacts of both sympathectomy and ramicotomy requires compensatory hyperhidrosis, which is the compensatory sweating in other huge locations of the body. Compensatory sweating is typically the chief post-operative patient complaints.

Severe axillary hyperhidrosis, palmar hyperhidrosis, and also craniofacial hyperhidrosis have actually received treatment through ramicotomy. In all forms of hyperhidrosis, selective ramicotomy of the upper thoracic region has actually presented an improvement in the top quality of life and decreased focal sweating. Some instances verified that ramicotomy frequently brought about a lowered rate of compensatory sweating, while various other instances shown an increased price of compensatory sweating. Post-operative compensatory hyperhidrosis due to ramicotomy for the therapy of serious hyperhidrosis have the right to screen a broad range of severity.

See more: Why Does The Hhr Have Two Batteries, 2011 Chevrolet Hhr Battery Replacement




A transverse slice via the thoracic region is shown in the image. The rami communicantes are labeled and attracted as 2 nerves that anteriorly bridge the spinal nerve onto a ganglion of the sympathetic trunk. The white ramus communicans is the lateral (more...)


Nodera M, Oikawa M, Nakazato K, Ishida T, Takeishi Y. Sympathetic nervous remodeling is induced in the intermediolateral nucleus after myocardial infarction - Role of BDNF-TrkB axis. Neurosci Lett. 2018 Oct 15;685:114-123.
Waxenbaum JA, Reddy V, Varacallo M. StatPearls . StatPearls Publishing; Treacertain Island also (FL): Aug 10, 2020. Anatomy, Autonomic Nervous System.
Ernsberger U, Rohrer H. Sympathetic tales: subdivisons of the autonomic nervous system and also the affect of developmental researches. Neural Dev. 2018 Sep 13;13(1):20.
Kaiser JT, Lugo-Pico JG. StatPearls . StatPearls Publishing; Treacertain Island (FL): Jul 31, 2020. Neuroanatomy, Spinal Nerves.
Young HM, Cane KN, Anderchild CR. Advancement of the autonomic nervous system: a comparative see. Auton Neurosci. 2011 Nov 16;165(1):10-27.
Jetti R, Kadiyala B, Bolla SR. StatPearls . StatPearls Publishing; Treacertain Island (FL): Aug 10, 2020. Anatomy, Back, Lumbar Sympathetic Chain.
Cho HM, Lee DY, Sung SW. Anatomical variations of rami communicantes in the top thoracic sympathetic trunk. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2005 Feb;27(2):320-4.
Misiak P, Jabłoński S, Rzepkowska-Misiak B, Piskorz L, Brocki M, Wcisło S, Smigielski J, Kordiak J. Evaluation of the efficiency of thoracic sympathectomy in the treatment of major hyperhidrosis of hands and armpits making use of the measurement of skin resistance. Wideochir Inne Tech Maloinwazyjne. 2012 Aug;7(3):147-55.
Akil A, Semik M, Fischer S. Efficacy of Miniuniportal Video-Assisted Thoracoscopic Selective Sympathectomy (Ramicotomy) for the Treatment of Severe Palmar and also Axillar Hyperhidrosis. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2019 Aug;67(5):415-419.
Kim DY, Paik HC, Lee DY. Comparative analysis of T2 selective department of rami-communicantes (ramicotomy) via T2 sympathetic clipping in the therapy of craniofacial hyperhidrosis. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2004 Aug;26(2):396-400.
Lee DY, Kim DH, Paik HC. Selective department of T3 rami communicantes (T3 ramicotomy) in the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis. Ann Thorac Surg. 2004 Sep;78(3):1052-5.

This book is spread under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Internationwide License (, which permits usage, duplication, adaptation, distribution, and reproduction in any kind of medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and also the source, a connect is provided to the Creative Commons license, and any type of changes made are shown.