Chapter2 FRATRICIDE- CAUSE AND EFFECTResponsibilityfor reducing the risk of fratricide drops squadepend on the shoulders of thejob pressure commander. Yet, all leaders of the maneuver task pressure and leadersof sustaining arms have to aid him to attain the mission without friendlyfire losses. He need to manipulate all training, product, and technological alternativesat his disposal. He need to not be afrhelp of fratricide, however strive to minimizeit through tough, realistic, combined arms training wright here each soldier andunit achieves the set traditional. Allleaders need to know the typical and relentlessly train to that traditional. Trainingcorrectly allows us to make mistakes, correct them and also, therefore, minimize their likelihoodin combat. Avoiding fratricide is a crucial training traditional and vital toefficient mission accomplishment. Knowing wright here our soldiers are, and wherewe desire the fire, will assist store our soldiers alive to kill the foe. Wehave to stop at all costs the reluctance to employ, incorporate, and also synchronizeall the battlefield operating devices at the important time and also location.Wewill certainly currently comment on causes of fratricide in terms of the following two kinds ofcapabilities presented by the TRADOC-AMC Task Force on Combat Identification.They are:SITUATIONALAWARENESS: Thereal-time specific expertise of one"s own area (and also orientation), as wellas the locations of friendly, enemy, neutral, and noncombatants. This includesawareness of the METT-T conditions that impact the operation. POSITIVEIDENTIFICATION: Theinstant, accurate, and also reliable capacity to discriminate through-sight betweenfriends and adversary. Optimally this capacity extends to maximum engagement and also acquisitionselection, and neither increases vulnercapability, nor decreases mechanism performance."Lackof positive targain identification and the incapability to preserve situationalawareness in combat settings are the major contributors to fratricide.If we know wbelow we are and wbelow our friends are in relation to us, we canminimize the probability of fratricide. If, in enhancement, we have the right to differentiate betweenfriend, neutral, and opponent, we have the right to alleviate that probability also more." -- TRADOC-AMCCombat identification Interim ReportPRIMARYCAUSES OF FRATRICIDESITUATIONALAWARENESS:InadequateFire and also Maneuver Control:Unitsmay fail to disseminate (via troop-leading actions and also rehearsals) the minimumcrucial maneuver and also fire support control steps to coordinate activitiekid the ground. Units fail to tie manage actions to recognizable terrain andevents or, where necessary, develop a recognizable attribute. Imappropriate use orincontinual expertise deserve to additionally make regulate measures inreliable.As the battle creates, the arrangement cannot attend to evident foe moves as theytake place and synchronization falls short. DirectFire Control Failure: Defensiveand also especially offensive fire control plans may not be emerged or might failin execution. Same units do not designate tarobtain referral points, engagementlocations, and priorities. Some might designate, yet fail to adright here to them. Weaponsplacing have the right to be poor, and also fire technique can break dvery own upon call. LandNavigation Failures:Neverstraightforward, navigation is frequently complex by difficult terrain or weather and visibility,navigating problems can cause systems to stray out of sector, report wrong places,come to be disoriented, or, employ fire support tools from wrong locations. Asa result, friendly devices might collide all of a sudden or connect each other erroneously.Reporting,Crosstalk and also Battle Tracking Failures: Commanders,leaders and their CPs at all levels frequently execute not generate timely, precise,and also complete reports or track subordinates as areas and also the tactical situationreadjust. Commanders are, therefore, unable to preserve situational awareness.This distorts the photo at each level and permits the erroneous clearanceof support pressures and also violations of hazard close. KnownBattlearea Hazards: Unexplodedordnance, unmarked and also untaped minefields, FASCAM, flying debris from discardingSABOTs or illumicountry rounds, and booby traps litter the battlefield. Failureto mark, record, remove, or otherwise anticipate these dangers leads to casualties.POSITIVEIDENTIFICATION:CombatIdentification Failures:Vehiclecommanders, gunners and attack pilots identify friendly and also adversary thermaland also optical signatures near the maximum array of their tools systems. However before,our strategies lead us to manipulate our variety advantage over the foe. Throughout limitedvisibility, or in limited terrain, units in proximity can mistake each otherfor the foe due to short engagement home windows and decision time. We execute nothave a method to recognize frifinish or opponent, various other than visual acknowledgment of ourpressures and the enemy"s. When the foe and also our Allies are equipped similarly,and also when the enemy supplied UNITED STATE tools, the trouble is compounded. OTHER:WeaponsErrors: Lapsesin unit and individual technique or violations of the Rules of Engagementallow errors that are not just accidents. Examples are out-of-sector engagements,unauthorized discharges, mistakes via explosives and hand grenades, chargeerrors, incorrect gun data and similar events.Althougheincredibly occurrence of fratricide is a duty of many type of contributingfactorsorpreconditions(seethorough list at AppendixA),the certain causes as we have actually questioned are reasonably few. Contributing factors,such as stress, confusion, poor weather, and poor preparation, might greatlyrise the opportunities of a navigation error that reasons fratricide. Short planningtime, faitempt to rehearse, and also leader tiredness, are other preproblems whichmight cause a fatally flawed direct fire setup or lack of proper maneuvermanage actions. Everymission will involve a unique mix of these components and their loved one importancewill certainly vary.Invarious other cases, favorable problems will certainly compensate for a fratricide contributingaspect (e.g., bright moonlight mitigates navigating and manage challenges)or 2 otherwise minor problems may incorporate to substantially boost hazard (inexperiencedflank platoon leader establishes commo problems). Hence,these contributing components are a critical dimension of realistic training problems.PRIMARYFRATRICIDE CONTRIBUTING FACTORS:Mission(& C2)HighVehicle or Wpns Density Cdr"sIntent Unclear or Complex PoorFlank Coordination CrosstalkLacking NoHabitual RelationshipsEnemyWeakIntelligence or Recon IntermingledWith FriendlyTerrainObscurationor Poor Visibility ExtremeEngagement Ranges NavigationDifficulty Absenceof Recognizable FeaturesTroops& EquipmentHighWeapons Lethality UnseasonedLdrs or Troops PoorFire Control SOPs IncompleteROE Anxietyor Confusion Failureto Adhere to SOPsTimeSoldierand also Leader Fatigue InadequateRehearsals ShortPlanning TimeLEADTO THESE PRIMARY FRATRICIDE CAUSES:AFatal Navigation Error Lossof Fire Control -- Direct & Instraight AReporting, Battle Tracking or Clearance of Fires Error IneffectiveManeuver Control Casualtiesin Friendly Mineareas CombatIdentification Errors WeaponsErrors or Failures in Discipline EFFECTSOF FRATRICIDETheresults of fratricide have the right to be terrible and also spread deeply within a unit. Fratriciderises the hazard of unacceptable losses and the hazard of mission failure.Fratricide seriously affects the unit"s capability to make it through and feature. Observationsof systems suffering fratricide include: Hesitationto conduct restricted visibility operations. Lossof confidence in the unit"s leadership. Increaseof leader self-doubt. Hesitationto use supporting combat devices. Oversupervisionof units. Lossof initiative. Lossof aggressiveness in the time of fire and also maneuver. Disruptedoperations, Needlessloss of combat power. Generaldestruction of cohesion and morale. FRATRICIDERISK ASSESSMENT IN PERSPECTIVEThetactically skilled and savvy leader must take into consideration the threat of fratricide,take appropriate prevalent sense steps to reduce the danger, and integrate thoseprocedures right into his mission planning and also execution. Combat is inherently risky,however the prudent leader takes reasonable measures to mitigate the hazard. Good commandersare cautious not to place undue emphasis on hazard avoidance and also hence increasetimidity and hesitance in the time of battle.

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We fight and also win by focusing overwhelmingcombat power on the adversary from three or 4 various units, hence, givinghim several various means to die all at once. Sensitivityto fratricide hazard reduction have to not deter this focus on decisive, included,linked arms engagements.Tableof ContentsVignette:Operation URGENT FURY: Air SupportVignette:Operation DESERT STORM: Actions in a Movement to Contact