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You are watching: Which of the following explains why elements in column 17 (the halogens) are very reactive?


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Ionic bonding in sodium chloride. An atom of sodium (Na) donates among its electrons to an atom of chlorine (Cl) in a chemical reactivity, and also the resulting positive ion (Na+) and negative ion (Cl−) develop a secure ionic compound (sodium chloride; widespread table salt) based upon this ionic bond.

The oxidizing stamina of the halogens rises in the very same order—i.e., from astatine to fluorine. Thus, of the halogen facets, elemental fluorine is all set with the biggest challenge and also iodine via the leastern. As a class, the halogen facets are nonsteels, however astatine shows certain properties resembling those of the metals.

Electronic structure

The chemical behaviour of the halogen facets can be debated a lot of conveniently in regards to their position in the periodic table of the elements. In the regular table the halogens comprise Group 17 (according to the numbering mechanism adopted by the Internationwide Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry), the team immediately coming before the noble gases. The halogen atoms carry salso valence electrons in their outermost electron shell. These seven outermany electrons are in 2 various kinds of orbitals, designated s (via 2 electrons) and p (with five). Potentially, a halogen atom could hold an additional electron (in a p orbital), which would offer the resulting halide ion the very same setup (configuration) as that of the noble gas next to it in the periodic table. These electron configurations are exceptionally secure. This pronounced tendency of the halogens to acquire a second electron makes them solid oxidizers.


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chlorine atom
Bohr model of a chlorine atom.

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At room temperature and atmospheric press the halogen aspects in their complimentary states exist as diatomic molecules. In molecular fluorine (F2) the atoms are hosted together by a bond made from the union of a p orbital from each atom, via such a bond being classed as a sigma bond. It need to be stated that the dissociation power for fluorine (the power important to break the F―F bond) is over 30 percent smaller sized than that of chlorine however is similar to that of iodine (I2). The weakness of the F―F single bond compared with chlorine have the right to be ascribed to the tiny size of fluorine resulting in a lessened overlap of bonding orbitals and also an raised repulsion of the nonbonding orbitals. In iodine, but, the p orbitals are even more diffuse, which suggests the bond becomes weaker than in chlorine or bromine.