Tright here is an old saying, "What you don"t understand, won"t hurt you." Too frequently, it has been prrange false.
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When the Brazilian National Indian Protection Service (the SPI, later on changed to National Indian Foundation - FUNAI) first started to market native Brazilian art and handicrafts in the late 1960s, one might have actually intended that its motives were to maintain Indians in isolation from the corrupting impacts of the country, and also to persuade Brazilian and foreign tourists of the value of Indian human being and their society. The marketing of product society retained tourists amethod from the Indians by bringing what the tourists wanted to airports, bus terminals, and also various other touristic spots. In this means, tourists and also Indians would both obtain many of what they wanted from the other - tourists could buy trinkets to take house and Indians could use the proceeds to buy machetes, matches, sewing equipments, or flashlights - without tourists bringing conditions, new values, and also disrespect or disruption to the life of the indigenous peoples. What the Indians wouldn"t recognize about Western society therefore couldn"t hurt them(1).
What has actually occurred, but, is one more story. Even this "instraight tourism" has produced some severe long-term effects for the Indian individuals affiliated.
In the first area, the Indians did not exist in a state of pristine tranquility and also harmony, from which the tourists" invasion would certainly supposedly have wrenched them. By the late 1960s, a lot of of Brazil"s Indian peoples had actually currently been in brutal, decimating call via the nationwide culture for many years. The variety of "pristine" people, naked and alone in their beauty, which tourists might have actually intimidated, were proportionally little and in such isolated areas that it would have been very unmost likely that they would certainly have actually been reached anyway. In addition, most isolated teams were still openly hostile to outsiders. They more than likely would certainly have eliminated any tourists before such troubles occurred.
Rather, by the 1960s, a lot of of the Indian peoples of Brazil had been decreased greatly in numbers with conquest and disease, and stayed in areas of modeprice accessibility from which they consistently arised to market their labor for a pittance in order to attain made items which they understood necessities. They were malnourimelted and also exploited and also mostly laughed at quite than admired by their Brazilian next-door neighbors. Instead of pristine splendor, they lived (and also still live) in poverty and desperation, ill-health and wellness and exploitation. This is what the SPI/FUNAI would "protect;" this is what the tourists would certainly have checked out however which the SPI/FUNAI may not have actually wiburned them to check out. This policy of "instraight tourism" served mainly to safeguard, not the Indians from the tourists nor the tourists from the Indians, yet the SPI/FUNAI from a vital and increated nationwide and international opinion which it would certainly have actually proven tough to refute. Thus, national and international voices in favor of the Indian have the right to constantly be labeled unincreated, the truth have to constantly remainder through the SPI/FUNAI, and also what anybody else doesn"t know won"t hurt them.
TOURISTS AND CULTURE CHANGE
Secondly, it could not be assumed that regulating call between Indians and tourists would certainly remove or also amelioprice the interactivity of Indian and Western societies. After all, tourists are just one source of call through Western culture. The SPI/FUNAI agents are others. Surrounding homesteaders and also farmers, passing truck drivers and also army or air pressure patrols, building and construction workers surveying or building brand-new highmethods and also dams, reporters, TV producers and also actors, visiting dignitaries, and Indian individuals that themselves seek the external human being, frequently for work-related, are all agents for the transmission of social patterns and values, concepts and also objects. Given the truth that tourists are generally better educated, wealthier and also a more articulate segment of the population, they might have actually been viewed more as a helpful automobile for the communication of the Indian situation to the exterior people than as a uniquely dangerous source of contamicountry to Indians. Certainly, if the SPI/FUNAI wanted to mitigate the contaminating effects of the Western human being upon native peoples, they might have discovered even more crucial resources to assault than tourists. This is not to say that the tourists need to have actually been left to connect via the Indians at will, just that as a category of influence, they were not the a lot of necessary then, nor would certainly they more than likely be the the majority of essential now (although, in Xingu National Park, they could have end up being a nuisance).
Lastly, most of the Indian individuals in question were not interested in creating specifically for the SPI/FUNAI sector. Other opportunities were open to them. Some tourists regulated to uncover even remote reservations; various other Indian locations were cshed to urban locations or major transport paths, making it straightforward for the Indians to go to the "tourists" or for the tourists to pertained to them, avoiding SPI/FUNAI trading regulations. Because the SPI/FUNAI demand was limited, the appearance of any kind of extra trading possibilities might only be checked out by the Indians as an expansion of an already good thing: they could unload excess craftoccupational or objects of premium or inferior top quality and also attain items which were unobtainable from the SPI/FUNAI. The SPI/FUNAI sector was subject to commonly seasonal variations. For these factors, Indian peoples often circumvented the SPI/FUNAI setup and made various other tourist contacts. What the SPI/FUNAI didn"t know wouldn"t hurt it.
Hence, in spite of federal government plan, social readjust and also tourists have affected the Indians. Outsiders other than tourists have actually lugged new diseases. The commercialization of Indian crafts has advanced individualization of the social ethic (benefits are shared much less regularly, leading to flourishing distinctions in material and social position within previously egalitarian groups). Political dependence on the SPI/FUNAI has actually altered political organization within many type of Indian groups, via those that soptimal Portuguese finest, or who finest cater to the SPI/FUNAI"s requirements, displacing conventional leadership. Many type of Indian teams have been fragmentised physically, their lands taken (regularly through the assistance of the SPI/FUNAI) and members enticed to look for employment from regional farmers or in far-away cities. Indian religious beliefs have actually been under siege by missionaries, the Brazilian value device and the faiattract of standard religions to secure redress from the many troubles their members challenge. Even the SPI/FUNAI"s standardization of arts and crafts has actually affected cultural breakthrough, as its concepts of what will offer dispute via the means that items have "traditionally" been made. In every one of these areas, therefore, grave questions arise about the Brazilian Indians" cultural survival.
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The SPI/FUNAI plan of "instraight tourism" certainly has actually not fixed this problem. Once aget, as via many of its policies, the Indians are not permitted to decide their own destinies, to get involved in the decisions affecting their current and also future health. The SPI/FUNAI intrudes right into eexceptionally element of Indian life from which some financial or political advantage may be wrung - initially it "regulated" (i.e., obtained compensation for) Indian labor for outsiders and the sale of Indian resources such as lumber, farm assets, or energy sources; it regulates the sale of Indian artefacts and retains a high portion of the revenues. All, of course, supposedly for the advantage of the Indian people; all, by legislation, for their very own good. After all these years (the SPI was started in the early 1900s), after all this regulation and also after all this worry for the excellent of the Indian, why perform the Indians have less land also on which to live, less food to eat, more internal conflict and also disruption, more social disorganization and anomie?
The control of Indian-tourist interaction is just one item in the full photo of manage which the Brazilian government has actually effected over the Indians. Ultimately, the survival of Indian societies in Brazil will certainly depend on the degree that they have the right to totally free themselves from the strangulation of this all-pervasive, alien administration, dedicated to making them right into something various other than what they themselves may desire to be. The benefits to the Indians of controlling Indian-tourist interaction in Brazil have been reasonably few. For a lot of Indian groups, its expenses have actually definitely outweighed them. But, aobtain, that is typical of the Brazilian Indian story. Don"t let the tourists find out; they think they are helping the Indians. But, after all, what they do not understand will not hurt them.