A. Digestive System

The structural components of a fish"s digestive mechanism include the mouth, teeth and gill rakers, esophagus, stomach, pylorus, pyloric caeca, pancreatic tworry (exocrine and also endocrine), liver, gall bladder, intestine and also anus. Not all components are existing in all fish A fish"s digestive device is adapted to their food behavior. In predatory (carnivorous) fishes, the mouth is normally big for engulfing prey whole, or in large chunks, and also teeth are present on the jaws (e.g. maxillary and dentary) and tongue (e.g. glossyhyal) for grasping live prey (See Ch. III). Gill rakers are brief in carnivorous fish and pharyngeal teeth are brief and also pointed for moving prey dvery own the throat. In omnivorous and planktivorous fishes, the mouth is smaller and also is generally devoid of teeth other than for pharyngeal teeth that may be blunt and level (molariform) for grinding or sharp and also lengthy for shredding. Gill rakers in these fish are frequently fine to prevent the escape throughout the gills of little food particles.

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The esophagus, which is lubricated by mucus, leads to the stomach. In carnivorous fish, the stomach is muscular and elastic for holding huge prey items, while in omnivorous and also planktivorous fishes the stomach, if present at all, is tiny because a more or less constant stream of tiny food pwrite-ups can circulation directly right into the intestine. The pylorus is a sphincter that prevents premature movement of the food bolus out of the stomach. Around the pylorus, many type of fish have out-pocketings referred to as pyloric caeca. The duty of pyloric caeca in digestion has been commonly speculated upon. Histologically, they are exceptionally similar to the intestine. Around the pyloric caeca (or in that very same area in fish doing not have them) is pancreatic tproblem. In fish the pancreas is usually diffuse, not a discreet body. As in all vertebrates, the pancreas has two digestive attributes. It is the source of: 1) exocrine secretion of digestive enzymes (proteases, lipases, and carbohydrases) right into the intestine and 2) endocrine secretion of the hormones insulin and also glucagon that act to reduced and also raise blood sugar.

The liver in fish produces bile which is stored in the gall bladder till a bolus passes the stomach, at which time the bile is expelled into the intestine. Bile consists of waste assets of liver task which pass out of the fish in the feces. Bile has actually a digestive function in that it emulsifies lipids, significantly increasing their absorbtion in the intestine. The liver is essential in the anabolism and also catabolism of amino acids took in in the time of digestion and also is additionally the site of storage of food energy in the create of glycogen. Many absorbtion of nutrients occurs in the intestine. The large protein, fat, and also starch molecules in food that have actually been broken into smaller sized molecules by gastric acid and also digestive enzymes move by diffusion or energetic transfer (ATPase pumps) into the network of capillaries neighboring the gut. The intestine is lined through finger-like out-pocketings (villi) that considerably boost the surchallenge location for absorbtion.

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The intestinal wall, while not as energetic as the exocrine pancreas, can secrete digestive enzymes, as well. The alimentary canal is commonly a short, S-shaped tube in carnivorous fish, however can be long and convoluted in omnivorous fish to help in the absorbtion of much less digestible plant material.

Assignment IXA

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