An ovariety or red Sun in the beforehand morning or late evening is a sight to behold. The sky takes on these vivid hues due to a phenomenon called Rayleigh scattering.

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Colorful skyline over Barcelona.

Made of Different Colors

The sunlight that we view is a kind of electromagnetic radiation that is emitted by the Sun. Knvery own as the visible light, it looks white yet is created of colors of various wavelengths, through violet having the shortest wavesize and also red having the longest. You deserve to watch the different colors as soon as you look through a prism or once a rainbow shows up in the sky.

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Earth’s Atmosphere

The Earth’s atmosphere is mostly comprised of gas molecules, via oxygen consisting of about 21% and nitrogen about 78%. In addition, water molecules in the create of droplets, ice crystals, and also vapor, and pwrite-ups such as dust, pollutants, and also ash can be uncovered in the environment, which is denser closer to the Planet and also thins out as the altitude rises.

Blue Skies And Yellow Sun


The Sun"s rays need to take a trip a shorter course with Earth"s environment in the day. This is why the sky looks blue throughout the day.

When sunlight strikes gas molecules, such as nitrogen and also oxygen, light of much longer wavelengths, choose red, yellow, and also orange, conveniently passes through, while light of shorter wavelengths, such as blue and also violet, is soaked up and also then scattered in all directions by the gas molecules.

When you look up at the skies during the day, this scattered blue and violet light reaches your eyes, yet, the humale eye is more receptive to blue frequencies than violet frequencies, so the skies looks blue.

This phenomenon is recognized as Rayleigh scattering. It is called after British physicist John William Strutt, also well-known as Lord Rayleigh. Besides making the sky look blue, it is likewise the factor why the Sun looks yellow in the time of the day even though sunlight is white. When the Sun is high in the skies, the light hregarding travel a much shorter distance with the environment. This implies many of the yellow, oarray, and also red light passes via while a little amount of blue and purple light is scattered and removed from the mix. The Sun, therefore, looks yellow for us below on Planet.

Longer Distance to Travel

During sunsets and sunrises, once the Sun is closer to the horizon, sunlight has to travel via a much longer distance and even more of the thick atmosphere to reach an observer’s eye.

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Due to Rayleigh scattering, most of the light of shorter wavelengths – the blue, violet, and green – are scattered away multiple times, leaving only lights of much longer wavelength – the red, orange, and also yellow – to pass right with to the observer.

The blue hour

The gold hour

This is why a rising and setting Sun tends to take on spectacular hues of red, oselection, and also yellow.

Dust and Pollution


Dust and also pollution deserve to reduce the vibrancy of sunrise and sunsets.

The quality of the air that sunlight hregarding pass through also has actually an impact on the shade of sunrises and sunsets. Dust pposts and also pollutants tfinish to tone down the colors in the sky and impede light from getting to the observer on the ground. Thus, the sky takes on dull hues of red and also yellow as soon as the air is full of dust and pollutants. This is why sunrises and sunsets in rural areas, over the sea, and deserts are a lot more colorful and also vivid than over cities and also urban areas.

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Red Moon

Rayleigh scattering is likewise responsible for offering the Moon a reddish or oselection hue during lunar eclipses. The problem of the Earth"s environment, consisting of the amount of air pollution and also dust from storms and volcanic eruptions, deserve to affect the shade of red the Moon takes on throughout the eclipse.