For this evaluation we surveyed 3,030 U.S. Hispanic adults in December 2019 as part of the 2019 National Survey of Latinos. We asked survey respondents about their awareness of the term Latinx and their views of the term. The sample consists of 2,094 Hispanic adults that were members of Pew Research Center’s Amerihave the right to Trends Panel (ATP), an digital survey panel that is recruited via nationwide, random sampling of residential addresses. It also consists of an oversample of 936 respondents sampled from Ipsos’ KnowledgePanel, another online survey panel likewise recruited with nationwide, random sampling of residential addresses. For the objectives of this report, references to foreign-born Hispanics incorporate those born in Puerto Rico. Individuals born in Puerto Rico are UNITED STATE citizens by birth. The survey was performed in both English and Spanish.
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See the Methodology section of this report for even more details.
The terms Hispanic and also Latino are used interchangeably in this report.
Latinx is a term offered to define civilization that are of or relate to Latin Amerihave the right to origin or descent. It is a gender-neutral or nonbinary alternate to Latino or Latina.
UNITED STATE born describes persons born in the USA and those born in various other nations to parental fees at leastern one of whom was a UNITED STATE citizen.
Fopower born describes persons born outside of the USA to parents neither of whom was a UNITED STATE citizen. The terms international born and immigive are used interchangeably in this report. For the objectives of this report, foreign born also contains those born in Puerto Rico. Although people born in Puerto Rico are UNITED STATE citizens by birth, they are had among the foreign born for this report bereason they are born right into a Spanish-dominant culture and also bereason on many kind of points their mindsets, views and beliefs are a lot closer to Hispanics born awide than to Hispanics born in the 50 claims or the District of Columbia, also those that determine themselves as being of Puerto Rican origin.
Second generation describes people born in the 50 claims or the District of Columbia via at least one first-generation, or immigive, parent.
Third and also higher generation describes human being born in the 50 states or the District of Columbia via both parental fees born in the 50 says or the District of Columbia.
Language prominence is a composite measure based on self-defined assessments of speaking and also reading abilities. Spanish-dominant world are even more skilled in Spanish than in English (i.e., they sheight and also read Spanish “exceptionally well” or “pretty well” however rate their English-speaking and analysis capacity lower). Bilingual describes people who are proficient in both English and also Spanish. English-dominant civilization are even more experienced in English than in Spanish.
Pan-ethnic labels describing the U.S. populace of world tracing their roots to Latin America and also Spain have been presented over the decades, rising and falling in popularity. Today, the two leading labels in use are Hispanic and Latino, with beginnings in the 1970s and also 1990s respectively.
However before, for the populace it is supposed to describe, only 23% of U.S. adults who self-recognize as Hispanic or Latino have heard of the term Latinx, and just 3% say they use it to explain themselves, according to a nationally representative, bilingual survey of UNITED STATE Hispanic adults performed in December 2019 by Pew Research Center.
The emergence of Latinx coincides with a global movement to introduce gender-neutral nouns and also pronouns into many kind of langueras whose grammar has traditionally used male or female constructions. In the USA, the first provides of Latinx showed up even more than a decade earlier. It was added to a widely used English dictionary in 2018, showing its higher usage.
Yet the usage of Latinx is not prevalent practice, and also the term’s introduction has generated conflict around its appropriateness in a gendered language favor Spanish. Some critics suggest to its beginnings among U.S. English speakers, saying it ignores the Spanish language and also its gendered develop.1 Still, tright here are examples of the term’s usage in Spanish in the U.S. and also abroad.2 Meanwhile, others check out Latinx as a gender- and LGBTQ-inclusive term, mirroring a wider activity within the U.S. about gender identification.
In enhancement, the UNITED STATE born are more most likely than the international born to have actually heard the term (32% vs. 16%), and also Hispanics who are mainly English speakers or bilingual are more most likely than those that greatly speak Spanish to say the very same (29% for both vs. 7%).
Hispanics who recognize with or lean towards the Democratic Party are even more likely to have actually heard of Latinx than those that recognize via or lean toward the Republideserve to Party (29% vs. 16%).
Awareness of the term Latinx does not necessarily analyze right into use. Across many demographic subteams, the share of Hispanics that say they use Latinx to describe their very own identification is considerably reduced than the share that say they have heard it. Use is among the highest for Hispanic womales ages 18 to 29 – 14% say they use it, a considerably better share than the 1% of Hispanic guys in the same age group who say they use it.
The introduction of Hispanic, Latino and also Latinx
Throughout the last half-century in the U.S., different pan-ethnic terms have actually arisen to explain Americans who trace their roots to Latin America and Spain.
The term Hispanic was initially supplied by the UNITED STATE government in the 1970s after Mexihave the right to Amerihave the right to and other Hispanic establishments lobbied the federal federal government to collect data on the populace. Subsequently, the U.S Congress passed Public Law 94-311 in 1976, mandating the arsenal of information about UNITED STATE residents of Mexihave the right to, Puerto Rideserve to, Cuban, Central American, South American and various other Spanish-speaking country origins. The legislation referred to as for the U.S. Census Bureau to develop a wider category that encompassed all people that determined having roots from these countries. The term Hispanic was first offered in a full census in 1980.
The 1990s lugged resistance to the term Hispanic, as it taken on a solid connection with Spain, and an alternative term emerged: Latino. By 1997, the UNITED STATE Office of Management and also Budget Plan issued a directive adding the term Latino to federal government publications. The two terms are used interchangeably, through Latino first showing up on the U.S. census in 2000, alongside Hispanic.
More newly, Latinx has arised as an alternative to Hispanic and Latino. Online searches for the term among the general U.S. populace showed up online in the beforehand 2000s. But the first considerable rise in searches (loved one to all virtual searches) appeared in June 2016 following a shooting at Pulse nightclub, an LGBTQ dance club in Orlanperform, Florida, that was hosting its Latin Night on the day of the attack. In succeeding years, the term’s usage on social media by celebrities, politicians and grassroots institutions has grvery own. In enhancement, some academic centers at community colleges, public colleges and Ivy League colleges are replacing Latino program names that were establiburned in previous decades through new Latinx-concentrated names.
In even more than 15 years of polling by Pew Research Center, half of Americans who map their roots to Spanish-speaking Latin America and also Spain have actually repetitively sassist they have actually no choice for either Hispanic or Latino as a term to define the team. And once one term is liked over one more, the term Hispanic has actually been wanted to Latino. Importantly, the same surveys present, nation of origin labels (such as Mexican or Cuban or Ecuadorian) are wanted to these pan-ethnic terms among the population they are intended to explain.
Google searcs for Latinx increasing in UNITED STATE, yet trail much behind Latina, Latino and Hispanic
The loved one popularity of Latinx in online searcs in the U.S. has raised given that 2016, according to a Pew Research Center evaluation of Google Trends data.3 While its earliest Google searcs extend back to the at an early stage 2000s, the highest monthly relative number of searcs for Latinx emerged in June 2020, surpassing a previous height in October 2019.4
Should Latinx be adopted as a pan-ethnic term for UNITED STATE Hispanics?
While some Hispanics say Latinx need to be used as a pan-ethnic term, few say they like it over others. A majority (61%) say they choose Hispanic to explain the Hispanic or Latino populace in the UNITED STATE, and 29% say they favor Latino. Meanwhile, just 4% say they choose Latinx to define the Hispanic or Latino populace.
Preference for Latinx as a pan-ethnic term is higher among those that are mindful of it – 10% in this team say they favor Latinx. Yet also among those mindful of Latinx, the terms Hispanic (50%) and Latino (31%) are preferred.
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In their very own words: What does Latinx mean to Hispanics?
When asked in an open-ended question what Latinx means in their own words, 42% of those that have heard the term explain it as a gender-neutral one. As one 21-year-old woguy said, “Latinx is a more inclusive term to usage for those who execute not choose to identify through a specific gender. The terms Latino and Latina are incredibly limiting for particular civilization.”
Other responses from the open-ended question sell various other descriptions of Latinx and reactions to it. For example, 12% of respondents who had heard of Latinx expush disagreement or disfavor of the term. Some described the term as an “anglicism” of the Spanish language, while others say the term is “not representative of the larger Latino community.”
Amongst various other responses, 12% say Latinx is a term around being Hispanic or Latino, while 9% of those mindful of Latinx say it is an LGBTQ neighborhood inclusive term. And 6% of respondents that have heard of Latinx say it is a brand-new, different or replacement term for Latino.