77.In assembly line balancing, cycle time (the proportion of easily accessible manufacturing time to reserved production) is the

a.minimum time that a product is allowed at each workstation

b.maximum time that a product is allowed at each workstation

c.optimum time that a product is permitted at each workstation

d.preferred cycle time that a product is enabled at each workstation

e.every one of the above

b(Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate)

78.A manufacturing line is to be designed to make 500 El-More dolls per day. Each doll requires 11 activities totaling 16 minutes of work. The manufacturing facility operates 750 minutes per day. The cycle time for this assembly line is

a.one-fifty percent minute

b.one and also one-fifty percent minutes

c.2 minutes

d.5,500 minutes

e.cannot be determined from the indevelopment given

b(Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) AACSB: Analytic Skills

79.A manufacturing line is to be designed for a project with 4 tasks. The task times are 2.4 minutes, 1.4 minutes, 0.9 minutes, and 1.7 minutes. The maximum cycle time is ______ and the minimum cycle time is ______ minutes.

You are watching: If a layout problem is solved by use of heuristics, this means that:

a.1.8; 1.4

b.1.6; 0.9

c.6.4; 2.4

d.2.4; 0.9

e.namong these

c(Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) AACSB: Analytic Skills

80.Cycle time is computed as

a.preferred output separated by the day-to-day operating time

b.everyday operating time divided by the product of desired output and also the sum of project times

c.the product of wanted output and the sum of job times split by everyday operating time

d.day-to-day operating time separated by the booked output

e.1.00 minus terminal time

d (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate)

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81.Daily capacity of a product layout is identified by

a.operating time divided by cycle time

b.cycle time split by operating time

c.operating time separated by complete task time

d.complete job time separated by cycle time

e.cycle time split by complete task time

a(Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate)

82.Four hundred and also eighty minutes of manufacturing time are accessible per day. Scheduled production is 120 devices per day. What is the cycle time?

a.4 minutes

b.5 minutes

c.6 minutes

d.7 minutes

e.8 minutes

a(Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) AACSB: Analytic Skills

83.A manufacturing line is to be designed for a product whose completion needs 21 minutes of job-related. The factory works 400 minutes per day. Can an assembly line with 5 workstations make 100 units per day?

a.yes, with exactly 100 minutes to spare

b.no, yet 4 workstations would certainly be sufficient

c.no, it will certainly loss brief also with a perfectly well balanced line

d.yes, but the line"s performance is incredibly low

e.cannot be identified from the indevelopment given

c(Repetitive and also product-oriented layout, moderate) AACSB: Analytic Skills

84.Four hundred and eighty minutes of production time are available per day. The schedule calls for the manufacturing of 80 devices per day. Each unit of the product requires 30 minutes of work-related. What is the theoretical minimum variety of workstations?

a.2

b.3

c.4

d.5

e.6

d(Repetitive and also product-oriented layout, moderate) AACSB: Analytic Skills

85.Which of the following is not a heuristic rule for assigning jobs to workstations in a product layout?

a.longest work first

b.in order of a lot of number of complying with tasks

c.median work first

d.shortest tasks first

e.in accordance through positional weight

c (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate)

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86.If a layout trouble is fixed by use of "heuristics," this implies that

a.there was no various other means to resolve the problem

b.no computer system software program was available

c.the trouble has just a couple of options to evaluate

d.no optimum solution exists

e.a "satisfactory" solution is acceptable

e(Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate)

87.Which of the following is a common heuristic for assembly line balancing?

a.debits close to the home windows, credits close to the door

b.manufacturers situate near materials, retailers find close to customers

c.earliest due date first

d.ranked positional weight

e.none of the above

d(Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate)

88.An assembly line is composed of 21 work grouped into 5 workstations. The amount of the 21 task times is 85 minutes. Cycle time for the line is 20 minutes. The performance of this line is

a.4.2 percent

b.17 percent

c.85 percent

d.100 percent

e.namong the above

c (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) AACSB: Analytic Skills

89.An assembly line consists of 158 work grouped right into 32 workstations. The sum of all job times is 105 minutes. Cycle time for the line is 4 minutes. The performance of this line is approximately

a.8 percent

b.21 percent

c.82 percent

d.100 percent

e.none of the above

c (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) AACSB: Analytic Skills

FILL-IN-THE BLANK

90.McDonald"s "Made for You" kitchen device represents a ___________ use of layout decisions. strategic (Global firm profile, easy)

91.___________ layouts address low-volume, high-variety production with like machines and also tools grouped together.

Process-oriented (Process-oriented layout, easy)

92.A(n) __________ is a distinct product-oriented arrangement of machines and also personnel in what is ordinarily a process-oriented facility.

work-related cell (Process-oriented layout, moderate)

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93.A(n) ___________ groups employees, their devices, and also spaces/offices to carry out for comfort, security, and also motion of information.

office layout (Office layout, moderate)

94.The ____________ is a non-numeric technique for determining which departments are situated near one an additional, and which departments are retained better acomponent.

office relationship chart or connection chart (Office layout, moderate)

95.A(n) ____________ addresses flow, allocates area, and responds to customer actions. retail layout (Retail layout, moderate)

96.__________ are fees manufacturers pay to acquire their commodities displayed.

Slotting fees (Retail layout, moderate)

97.__________ describes the physical surroundings in which a service takes area, and how they impact customers and also employees.

Servicescape (Retail layout, moderate)

98.____________ stays clear of placing materials or supplies in storage by handling them as they are obtained for delivery.

Cross-docking (Warereal estate and also storage layouts, moderate)

99.The job stays in one area and also workers and equipment concerned that one work area in a

__________ layout.

fixed-position (Retail layout, moderate)

100._______________ is the usage of computer system software program to evaluate the profitcapacity of merchandising plans in a retail layout.

Group management (Retail layout, moderate) AACSB: Use of IT

101.__________ is that facet of balancing a job-related cell that superficially resembles cycle time.

Takt time (Work cells, moderate)

102.A(n) ________ line is a machine-paced product-oriented facility for building components. fabrication (Repetitive and also product-oriented layout, moderate)

103.___________ is the maximum time that the product is easily accessible at each workterminal.

Cycle time (Repetitive and also product-oriented layout, moderate)

SHORT ANSWERS

104. Identify McDonald"s "seven significant innovations

The seven significant developments are indoor seating, drive-via home windows, breakfast menus, play locations, the "Made for You" kitchen device, the self-organization kiosk, and the 2first century look. (Global agency profile, moderate)

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105.In what certain locations does the layout decision establish a firm"s competitive priorities?

Layout decisions establish a firm’s competitive priorities in the complying with areas: processes, versatility, expense, capacity, and quality of job-related life. (The strategic importance of layout decisions, moderate)

106.To develop a good facility layout, what should be determined?

You should think about the following to determine a great layout: selection of material managing equipment, capacity and also room needs, environment and also aesthetics, flows of indevelopment, and expense of relocating between miscellaneous work-related areas. (Types of layouts, moderate)

107.Identify the salso fundamental layout strategies. Describe the usage of each one exceptionally briefly.

1.Office layout: Positions workers, their equipment, and also spaces/offices to administer for movement of information.

2.Retail layout: Allocates shelf space and also responds to customer behavior.

3.Warehouse layout: Addresses trade-offs between space and product taking care of.

4.Fixed-place layout: Addresses the layout requirements of big, bulky jobs such as ships and also buildings

5.Process-oriented layout: Deals with low-volume, high-variety production.

6.Work cell layout: Arvarieties machinery and also tools to focus on the production of a solitary product or a group of related products

7.Product-oriented layout: Seeks the finest personnel and also machine utilization in repeated or constant production.

(Types of layout, moderate)

108.What approaches can be provided to conquer the inherent problems of fixed-position layouts?

Some actions that have the right to be taken to get rid of the difficulties of a fixed-place layout are to build excellent schedules, accurately define needs, and also take a rational method to the layout, as opposed to politicizing the decision. (Fixed-place layout, moderate)

109."Having a focused work-related center is favor having actually a factory within a manufacturing facility." Discuss. Include in your discussion what conditions make concentrated work-related centers appropriate.

A concentrated work facility is a long-term product-oriented collection of equipment within a processoriented facility. It requires team technology or indistinguishable, a high level of staff training and flexibility, and also great assistance or creative thinking to get began. (Process-oriented layout, moderate)

110.Why do work-related cells rise the use of equipment and machinery?

Work cells increase the use of devices and also machinery because of much better scheduling and much faster product flow. (Process-oriented layout, moderate)

111.What are the benefits of concentrated factories?

Focoffered factories are better able to stay in tune via their customers, develop top quality assets, and run at better margins. (Process-oriented layout, moderate)

112.Exsimple how a load-distance model helps deal with problems in process layout.

The difficulty in procedure layout is to host down product activity and product managing. The load-distance design calculates these movements from department to department, and also have the right to discover that collection of departmental space assignments that minimize the accumulation product taking care of price. This is an optimal layout for a procedure layout, provided the pattern of loads and also distances. (Process-oriented layout, moderate)

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113.Identify the four demands for cellular production.

(1) identification of families of products, frequently through the use of team modern technology codes or equivalents; (2) a high level of training, adaptability, and empowerment of employees; (3) being self-included, via its own devices and also resources; and (4) test (poka-yoke) at each terminal in the cell. (Process-oriented layout, moderate)

114.A framework manager at a agency headquarters once shelp, "I"d like to use Muther"s office relationship chart or the load-distance version to solve our layout troubles, but neither tool deserve to optimize. I want the best layout feasible." Discuss.

The manager have to not be so quick to disapprove models that uncover satismanufacturing facility, but not necessarily optimal, remedies. The load-distance design can optimize relatively little problems, yet big difficulties are beyond the explicit enumeration forced for optimization. That"s why CRAFT and also other software application seek "acceptable" solutions. The office connection diagram is not an optimizing tool at all, as it supplies labels, not numbers, to suggest desircapability of closeness. (Office layout, moderate) AACSB: Reflective Thinking

115.What style guidelines assist retail layouts to maximize customer exposure to products?

Design guidelines that assist retail layouts maximize customer exposure to products include:

1.locating the high-attract items approximately the periphery of the store

2.making use of prominent locations for high-impulse and high-margin items

3.distributing what are well-known in the trade as "power items" to both sides of an aisle, and also dispersing them to increase the viewing of other items

4.using end aisle locations because they have actually a very high exposure rate

5.conveying the mission of the store by careful selection in the positioning of the lead-off department (Retail layout, moderate)

116.Consider the 5 concepts for determining the overall plan of a lot of retail stores. How are these concepts enforced (a) in a superindustry, and (b) in a fine department store? (Please think about the whole store--not just the areas where merchandise is displayed.)

(Suggested response) The 5 concepts are: 1. locating the high-draw items roughly the perimeter of the save, 2. utilizing significant areas for high-impulse and also high-margin items, 3. distributing what are known in the trade as "power items" to both sides of an aisle, and also dispersing them to rise the viewing of other items, 4. making use of finish aisle locations bereason they have actually a really high exposure price, 5. conveying the image of the save by careful selection in the placing of the lead-off department. Supersectors make even more usage of aisles, where principles 3 and also 4 are featured. Department stores are meandering, so there"s less usage of end-caps. Both types of retail seem to follow concepts 1 and also 5. Idea 2 appears to be applied with impulse items near the checkouts for both retail types. The supermarket"s straight lines convey its strategy of low cost; the department store"s screen areas convey its focus on photo, browsing, and so on (Retail layout, difficult) AACSB: Reflective Thinking

117.Briefly explain what "slotting" is. Why is slotting thought about a "controversial" practice? What moral worries might aincrease through regard to slotting?

Slotting is the practice of manufacturers paying for retail shelf area. It is controversial because some supervisors grant of the practice, yet others perform not. Ethical issues involved with slotting are (1) such payments can be thought about bribery, (2) such payments price consumers even more, and also (3) such payments might interfere via effective and also profitable use of retail room. (Retail layout, difficult) AACSB: Ethical Reasoning

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118.What is a servicescape? How is it regarded the retail layout problem? What are the three facets of servicescape for managing these humale issues?

Servicescape describes the physical surroundings in which a business takes area. Rather than architecture a retail space strictly for profitability, supervisors need to take into consideration just how the surroundings—the layout—have actually a humanistic effect on customers and employees. The three aspects are ambient problems, spatial layout/functionality, and also signs, symbols, and also artifacts. (Retail layout, moderate)

119.What is cross-docking? Why is it proper for some develops of wareresidence layout?

Cross-docking prevents placing products or provides in storage by processing them as they are received for delivery. It prevents storing the product, conserves space and also receiving time, and accelerates shipment to the ultimate destination. (Warehousing and storage layouts, moderate)

120.What are the two standard types of product layouts? Exsimple just how they are aprefer, and also just how they are different.

The two forms are fabrication lines and also assembly lines. Fabrication lines construct components on a series of makers, while assembly lines put the fabricated components together at a collection of workstations. Fabrication lines tfinish to be machine paced and need mechanical alters to facilitate balance, while assembly lines tfinish to be paced by job-related tasks assigned to individuals or to workstations and also are therefore well balanced by relocating jobs from one individual to one more. (Repetitive and also product-oriented layout, difficult)

121.Explain what the function of assembly line balancing is. Describe briefly how it is done. Exsimple exactly how assembly line balancing supports the demands of product layout.

Assembly line balancing attempts to put equal amounts of work into each of the workstations that assemble a product. The approach starts with a task list and precedence chart; to this is added demand information, from which cycle time deserve to be computed. This is the speed at which the line must move. Then the theoretical number of stations is calculated. Each forced task is then assigned into one workstation. This approach holds dvery own the amount of idle time in a product layout, and leads to greater utilization of the plant, and also to greater volume of output. (Repetitive and also product-oriented layout, difficult)

122.Define the complying with terms that occur in assembly line balancing: cycle time, minimum number of workstations, and also effectiveness.

Cycle time is the proportion of permitted occupational time to units reserved. The theoretical minimum variety of workstations in an assembly line is established by splitting the complete task-duration time for the product by the cycle time. The performance of a line balance is identified by separating the total task time assigned by the product of the number of workstations times the cycle time. (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate)

123.What is the role of heuristics in solving layout problems? Provide a brief instance, drawing from manufacturing cases, retailing instances, or various other service situations.

Heuristics are used in troubles as well facility to model explicitly, such as assembly line balancing troubles, fixed-place layouts, office layouts, and also retail layouts. All of these layout forms are rather facility, featuring incredibly large numbers of alternative services and also no single numeric objective for evaluating them. (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate)

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124.Assembly line balancing has actually simply been supplied to fix a product layout trouble. Two remedies look particularly attractive to the plant supervisors. Both services make the exact same output per day, and also both have the very same variety of workstations. The supervisors were going to break the tie by looking at line effectiveness, yet found that both lines had actually the same performance also. Should they have actually been surprised at this? Exordinary.

No, they should not be surprised. Efficiency is the proportion of actual work-related needed per unit to time accessible. Work required is plainly the same in both cases as the product is the same. Work obtainable is additionally the same, considering that both lines have the same variety of stations and the same cycle time. Once cycle time and also number of stations are well-known, so is performance, no issue what jobs are assigned to what stations within that structure. (Repetitive and also product-oriented layout, difficult) AACSB: Analytic Skills

125.What are the advantages and also disbenefits of product layouts?

The advantages of a product layout are:

•The low variable expense per unit commonly connected through high-volume, standardized assets.

•Low material managing costs.

•Reduced work-in-procedure inventories.

•Easier training and supervision.

•Rapid throughput.

The disbenefits are:

•The high volume compelled because of the huge investment required to develop the procedure.

•That work stopweb page at any kind of suggest ties up the whole procedure.

•A absence of versatility as soon as dealing with a selection of commodities or manufacturing prices.

(Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate)

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PROBLEMS

126.Develop a solution for the adhering to line balancing trouble, allowing a cycle time of 5 minutes.

a.Draw the precedence diagram for the collection of tasks.

b.Calculate the theoretical minimum variety of workstations.

c.Balance this line utilizing the longest job time heuristic.

d.What tasks are assigned to which stations?

e.Does the solution have actually the minimum variety of stations? Exordinary.

f.How a lot idle time is there, summed over all workstations?

g.What is the performance of this line?

Work Task

Task Time (seconds)

Task Predecessor(s)

A

70

-

B

60

A

C

120

B

D

60

-

E

240

C, D

F

100

A

G

190

E, F

The minimum variety of workstations is 3. Balance places ABDF in terminal 1, C in station 2, E in terminal 3, and G in terminal 4. The solution provides 4 stations, not three. The POM for Windows solution is displayed listed below. Idle time is distributed 10, 180, 60, and 110 per terminal. Tbelow are 360 secs of idle time in the device. Efficiency is 70.0%.

(Repetitive and also product-oriented layout, moderate) AACSB: Analytic Skills

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127.An assembly line has been designed to make battery-powered beverage mixers. Task details are shown in the table below:

Station

Task Assigned

Task Time (minutes)

1

1

 

3.0

2

3; 4

 

1.5; 2.0

3

2; 5;

6

1.5; 1.5; 1.0

4

7

 

3.0

5

8

 

2.5

6

9; 10;

11

2.0; 1.0; 1.0

a.What is the assigned cycle time (in minutes)?

b.What is the maximum output price of this line in mixers per hour?

c.What is the complete idle time per cycle?

d.What is the assembly line"s efficiency?

Cycle time is 4.0 minutes (governed by stations 3 and 6). Maximum output is 60/4 = 15.0 units per hour. Idle time is 1.0 + 0.5 + 0.0 + 1.0 + 1.5 + 0 = 4.0 minutes. Efficiency is 20.0/24.0 = 83.3%. (Repetitive and product-oriented layout, moderate) AACSB: Analytic Skills

128.Departments A, B, C, and D have to be assigned to four rooms 1, 2, 3, and also 4. These rooms are arranged in a row, in that order, via 20 meters between each. The departmental work-related flows are consisted of in the table listed below.

See more: Why Do Spiral Galaxies Appear Blue In Color? Why Do Spiral Galaxies Often Appear Blue

a.What is the product handling total of assigning A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4?

b.What is the product handling full of assigning A-1, B-3, C-4, D-2?

Flow Matrix

 

Dept. A

Dept. B

Dept. C

Dept. D

Dept. A

0

30

5

20

Dept. B

5

0

40

20

Dept. C

0

10

0

40

Dept. D

10

5

0

0

(a)The product managing complete of A-1, B-2, C-3, D-4 is 5500. Details: 1-2 (A-B): 20x30+20x5=700; 1-3 (A-C): 40x5+40x0=200; 1-4 (A-D): 60x20+60x10=1800; 2-3 (B-C): 20x40+20x10=1000; 2-4 (B-D): 40x20+40x5=1000; and also 3-4 (C-D): 20x40+20x0=800. The amount of these six aspects is 5,500.

(b) The product dealing with full of A-1, B-3, C-4, D-2 is 5400, which is also the optimal solution. Details: 1-2 (A-D): 20x20+20x10=600; 1-3 (A-B): 40x30+40x5=1400; 1-4 (A-C): 60x5+60x0=300; 2-3 (B-D): 20x20+20x5=500; 2-4 (C-D):40x40+40x0=1600; and also 3-4 (B-C): 20x40+20x10=1000. These 6 elements sum to 5400. (Process-oriented layout, moderate) AACSB: Analytic Skills