Why have to a man are afraid wright here occasions of chance dominion, and tbelow is clear foreunderstanding of nothing? It is ideal to live without setup, yet one can. Do not fear marriage with your mommy, for many kind of men currently have actually lain via their mothers in desires. But these points are nopoint to the man who bears life easily.

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SOPHOCLES (fifth-century BCE playwright), Oedipus Tyrannus

MODERN THEORIES OF PSYCHOLOGY

The modern study of psychology consists of the investigation of huguy (and also animal) actions in all its develops and also manifestations, although many laymales still tfinish to check out it in the conmessage of the psychoanalytic theories of huguy action and also motivation developed by the early twentieth-century thinkers Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, and also their followers. The language of psychology has so permeated our modern vocabulary that many of these terms have shed their original, narrowly conceived, and specialized definitions. Like the terminology of all of the modern scientific researches and also modern technologies, the vocabulary is based mainly on learned borrowings from Greek and Latin.

Greek or Latin Word

English Meaning

psyche (ψυχή)

spirit, soul

as learned borrowing, provided as predeal with, psycho-

mind

mens, mentis1

mind

anima, animae

breath

animus, animi

heart, mind, courage, passion

persona

mask

sanum, sani

healthy and balanced, sane

Soul Study

In the earliest usage of the word psychology in English (seventeenth century), it supposed the study of points concerning the soul.

Who Am I?

According to Sigmund Freud, the human psyche is composed of 3 interactive components:

the id

It. The repository of our instinctual drives that are repeatedly striving for expression

the ego

I. That part of the psyche that reacts to and also experiences the exterior world; our feeling of self; consciousness, memory

the superego

Super (above) + ego. That part of the personality pertained to with ethics, and shaped by the moral traditional and social ideals of the community

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The god of love, Cupid, and Psyche, the mortal girl whom he saved from fatality (British Museum)

ANCIENT PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY

In the classical human being, many playwlegal rights, poets, and also even historians discovered their resource product in prehistoric myths that vividly described the often facility psychological dynamics within the framework of the family members. The Oedipus facility, as presented by Freud and based on the fifth-century BCE play Oedipus Tyrannus by Sophocles, is probably the many famed of such conflicts; however Greek myth gives us through many various other examples of the consequences of familial passions, examples that still seem to be psychologically valid 2,500 years later.

Hence, the study of classical myth has offered an illumination of the sources of human behavior for contemporary students of psychology, many kind of of whom watch as a major aim of Greek myths the explace and resolution of the desires, demands, and also disputes that proceed to drive our actions. Several characters from Greek myth, bereason of their extreme habits, have provided their names to a variety of psychological syndromes. Here are just a few:

narcissism: extreme admiration of one"s own physical or mental qualifications. The handsome Narcissus was punished by the gods for his pride and self-absorption. Casupplied by Nemesis, the goddess of retribution, to autumn in love via own reflection in a pool, he might not bear to tear himself away, and also hence faded right into nothingness. All that continued to be was the freduced that carries his name.

Electra complex: In psychoanalytic concept, those symptoms are said to be brought about by the suppressed sexual desire of a daughter for her father. Electra, daughter of King Agamemnon, conspired with her brother Orestes to murder their mommy, Clytemnestra, after Clytemnestra had actually eliminated the king.

Oedipus complex: According to Freud, the desire of the son for sex-related gratification via the parent of the opposite sex. The kid frequently exhibits an intense disfavor of the other parent. Oedipus, as you will certainly recontact, unwittingly (perhaps) killed his father and married his mother. But then aobtain, as Jocasta, Oedipus"s mom (and wife), states, “In dreams many kind of a male has slept through his mother.”

Family Member

Latin Word

Greek Word

mother

mater, matris

mater (μήτηρ)

father

pater, patris

pater (πατήρ)

brother

frater, fratris

adelphos (ἀδελφός)

sister

soror, sororis

adelphe (ἀδελφή)

family

familia, familiae or

genos (γένος) or

gens, gentis

genea (γενεά)

son, daughter2

filius, filii; filia, filiae

Be Nice to Your Mother

The Latin expression, alma mater, which means nourishing mom, was the phrase provided by primitive Romans to explain their nation. Today we use the expression to the colleges we attfinished bereason their duty is to foster and also nourish us intellectually. When you graduate, you can say that, having been nouriburned by education, you are analumnus (male; plural alumni) or an alumna (female; plural alumnae). Both alma and also alumnus (alumna) are obtained from alo-alere = nourish.

LOVE AND MARRIAGE

In Greek myth, marriage frequently proves to be dangerous, indeed, even fatal: Clytemnestra killed her husband also, Agamemnon, upon his return from the Trojan War, although some said that it was via good reason. He had actually sacrificed their daughter Iphigeneia before establishing off for Troy, and also then brought earlier a Trojan princess, Cassandra, as part of his booty. Medea had actually derived the Golden Fleece for the Greek hero Jaboy after he promised her marital relationship, yet she murdered their kids as soon as Jason divorced her in order to marry another woman.

Marital Relationship

Latin Word

Greek Word

marriage

matrimonium, matrimonii

gamos (γάμος)

wife

uxor, uxoris or

gyne, gynaecos (γυνη´) or

matrona, matronae

gamete (γαμετή)

husband

maritus, mariti or

aner, andros (ἀνήρ) or

vir, viri

gametes (γαμέτης)

STATES OF FEELING

Love and Desire

Greek or Latin Word

English Meaning

amo-amare-amatum

love

cf. amicus, amici

friend

bonum, boni

good

cupido, cupidinis

desire

eros (ἔρως)

love (noun)

phileo (φιλέω)

love (verb)

verum, veri

true

Hatred and also Disapproval

Greek or Latin Word

English Meaning

odium, odii

hatred

miseo (μισέω)

hate

as learned borrowing, provided as

prefix, miso-

hating

hostilis, hostilis

opponent (adj.)

cf. hostis, hostis

opponent (n.)

malum, mali

bad

fallo-fallere-falsum

deceive

pseudon (ψευ̑δον)

lie

as learned borrowing, provided as

presettle, pseudo-

false

Oh What a Tangled Internet We Weave …

Perhaps the worst offense versus the magnificent was hybris, an expression of insolence so delusional that it might lead one to think that one"s strength or power was equal to that of the gods. Needless to say, it was always puniburned. According to Greek myth, Arachne was a beautiful young girl that boasted that her spinning was finer than that of Athena. The two had actually a contest, and also indeed, the work-related of the mortal girl was better. The goddess flew right into a rage and began beating negative Arachne, that, in despair, hung herself. But in a last act of revenge for Arachne"s hybris, Athena turned Arachne into a spider. Arachne"s talent endured her transdevelopment, but, and also she continues to spin also now.

Arachne (ἀράχνη) = spider

hybris (ὕβρις) = shamelessness; in Greek myth, believing that one is the equal to the gods

I"m Okay. Are You Okay?

Of course, our eactivities and behavior may seem to others to be abnormal, and also one person"s are afraid might be another"s madness or uncontrollable desire.

Greek or Latin Word

English Meaning

mania (μανία)

madness

phobos (φόβος)

fear

insania, insaniae

madness

cf. sanum, sani

healthy

THE FOUR HUMORS

In antiquity and also in the Center Ages, it was generally thought by Greek and Roman clinical practitioners that the body included four different fluids, or humors. They were yellow bile, babsence bile, blood, and also phlegm. Doctors sassist that these 4 humors, once in proper balance, created great health; however an excess or deficiency of any kind of one of them could reason both physical and also mental disease. Even this day, derivatives of these words are not just offered to define moods and personality forms, but likewise have actually come to be component of the contemporary psychiatric vocabulary.

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Etrushave the right to sarcophagus lid (Villa Giulia, Rome)

Latin or Greek Word

English Meaning

English Derivative

Meaning

chole (χολή)

yellow bile

choler

anger

bilis, bilis

yellow bile

bilious

irritable

melancholia (μελαγχολία)

babsence bile

melancholy

deep sadness

cf. melas, melanos (μέλας)

black

phlegma (φλέγμα)

phlegm

phlegmatic

apathetic; slow

sanguis, sanguinis

blood

sanguine

cheerful; hopeful

STAR WARS

Tbelow were other theories of personality and also behavior in antiquity. For instance, many type of civilization thought (and some still do) that the planets and also various other heavenly bodies impact human habits and health and wellness, and that people born under the indicators of certain planets share the temperaments of the gods who subjugated those planets, and also that offered the planets their names.

The Planets and also Their Romale Gods

Planet/God

Roman Name

Function

Mercury

Mercurius, Mercurii

winged messenger of the gods, constantly on the move

Venus

Venus, Veneris

goddess of love and sexual desire

Mars

Mars, Martis

god of war

Jupiter (Jove)

Juppiter, Jovis

ruler of the gods, who thus had reason to be happy

Saturn

Saturnus, Saturni

leader of the gloomy underworld

Moon

Luna, Lunae

goddess whose changes in develop and also shape were believed to impact huguy behavior

But various other gods could additionally influence humale and also pet actions. Pan, the Greek god of flocks and herds, chosen to play his pipes in the countryside; the shrill high notes would certainly reason the pets to act in strange ways. It was likewise sassist that he might overwhelm his opponents just by shouting, for his cry would certainly reason them to feel sudden, unreasonable terror, or panic.

SCIENCE AND THE HUMAN MIND

Of course, culture this particular day is obsessed through precision and clinical measurement, also in the realm of huguy habits. Modern psychology has actually devised all sorts of indicates to analyze how and also why we act, and has actually emerged devices whereby human knowledge is thought to be accurately measured. The Greeks and also Romans were not so specific in their dimensions, however we still use their vocabulary to define levels of intellectual ability. Who knows? Perhaps the Greeks and Romans were smarter than we are.

Greek or Latin Word

English Meaning

intellego-intellegere-intellectum

understand, distinguish

cf. lego-legere-lectum

select, read

idion (ἴδιον)

one"s own, private

cf. idio- offered as presolve in English,

“peculiar to”

idiotes (ἰδιώτης)

private citizen

imbecillum, imbecilli

weak

cf. baculum, baculi

stick

moron (μωρόν)

foolish, stupid

sophon (σοφόν)

wise

Don"t Be Foolish

An oxymoron is a number of speech that joins 2 terms that are inconsistent. Here are two examples:

“Jumbo shrimp are pretty ugly.”

“He is plainly perplexed.”

όξύς = clever, sharp

You"re an Idiot!

The word idiotes (ἰδιώτης) was applied to those that cared only for their personal affairs and also did not participate in public life; thus, its interpretation became pejorative.

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NAME ____________________________________________________________________

A. In the complying with concerns, fill in the empty with the literal definition of the italicized word or part of word. Make sure that your sentences are grammatically correct.

1. A magnifying glass __________objects __________.

2. The minimum wage is the __________ amount one have the right to be passist.

3. The mayor of the city is meant to have __________ power than various other officials.

4. Someone who is demented is __________ his __________.

5. Our individualities are really simply __________.

6. In a sorority, the members think about themselves to be __________.

7. If you name your dog Fido, you intend him to be __________.

8. A misogynist __________ __________.

9. Cupid was the Roman god of __________.

10. Inanimate objects carry out __________ have actually __________.

11. Genealogy is __________ __________.

12. A person through a martial displace enjoys __________.

13. An egotist is an individual whose favorite pronoun is __________.

14. To ameliorate a case is to make it __________.

15. When theorists search for the eternal verities, they are in search of those concepts that are always __________.

16. An ultimatum is a __________ proposal or demand also.

17. A pessimist is always certain that the __________ will certainly happen.

18. An optimist constantly thinks the __________ about scenarios.

19. He made a fallacious dispute bereason he wanted to __________ me.

20. His erratic actions made me think that his mind was __________.

21. He was so arrogant that also his friends assumed him guilty of __________.

22. He was discovered guilty of bigamy when he admitted that he had actually __________ __________.

23. His infamous behavior brought __________ to his family.

24. His odious habits caused everyone to __________him.

25. Idiosyncratic habits is __________ an individual.

26. A Francophile__________ all things French.

27. The pseudonymous writer provided a __________ __________ bereason he did not wish to reveal his identification.

28. Psychosis is a diseased problem of the __________.

29. I knew I had actually percreated badly, yet his pejorative comments made me feel __________.

B. Answer the complying with concerns. If you are not sure of the answers, examine your unalinked dictionary.

30. Philosophers have constantly questioned the summum bonum. What is it? __________ __________

31. Of what crime are you guilty if you kill your brother? __________

32. Wright here must your superiors be? __________

33. In the counting of votes, what is the distinction between a plurality and a majority? _________________________________________________________________________

34. What is the literal interpretation of matriarchy? __________ __________What is its current usage? ____________________

35. What is the distinction between sanguine and also sanguinary?____________________________________________________________________

36. What is the literal interpretation of animus? __________What is its current usage?_______________________________________________________

37. What is the distinction in meaning between amiable and amicable?_____________________________________________________________

38. What is the definition of the Latin expression persona non grata? ____________________

39. What carry out the etymologies of the words matrimony and also matron tell us around the primitive Roman understanding of the function of marriage? ______________________________

40. Their marital bliss was shattered as soon as he committed uxoricide. What had actually he done? ____________________

41. What type of cell is a gamete? __________

42. What is the literal meaning of patrimony? __________What is its present usage? __________

43. I know it"s not really true, however it appears to me that eincredibly time the moon is complete, world act like__________.

44. His moronic habits encouraged me that he was a __________.

How would you characterize someone whose personality can be characterized as:

45. jovial

____________________

46. saturnine

____________________

47. mercurial

____________________

What are the complying with fears, creates of madness, or desires?

48. monomania

__________

56. egomania

__________

49. megalomania

__________

57. dipsomania

__________

50. pyromania

__________

58. kleptomania

__________

51. gamophobia

__________

59. agoraphobia

__________

52. xenophobia

__________

60. acrophobia

__________

53. claustrophobia

__________

61. bibliophilia

__________

54. ailurophobia

__________

62. gynophobia

__________

55. ponophobia

__________

63. triskaidekaphobia

__________

C. By now, you need to be able to recognize Romance language cognates of Latin words. Without consulting a dictionary, see if you deserve to number out the English definitions of each of the adhering to French (F.), Spanish (S.), or Italian (I.) words.

64. rey (S. noun)

__________

70. dire (F. verb)

__________

65. amigo (S. noun)

__________

71. odio (I. and also S. noun)

__________

66. malo (S. adjective)

__________

72. con (I. and also S. prep.)

__________

67. animato (I. adjective)

__________

73. padre (S. noun)

__________

68. faire (F. verb)

__________

74. verdad (S adjective)

__________

69. fratello (I. noun)

__________

Contrasted to What?

The comparative and also superlative develops of Latin adjectives can additionally have English derivatives.

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

bonus, boni = good

melior = better

optimus = best

exter, exteri = outsidecf. adverb extra

exterior = outer

extremus = outermany,farthest

magnus, magni = large

major = larger

maximus = largest

malus, mali = bad

pejor = worse

pessimus = worst

multus, multi = much

plus, pluris = more

plurimus = most

parvus, parvi = small

minor/minus = smaller

minimus = smallest

superus, superi = abovecf. preplace super

remarkable = higher

supremus or summus =highest possible or last

ulter, ultri = beyondcf. adverb ultra

ulterior = farther

ultimus = farthest, last

The coming before adjectives are irregular in the development of their comparative and also superlative forms; the consistent superlative finishing is -issimus (-issima, -issimum). How does that finishing show up in the miscellaneous Romance languages?

It"s My Fault

If you should apologize, yet want to present off at the exact same time, you deserve to always say mea culpa.

culpa, culpae

fault, blame

No, It"s Not

The legal term non compos mentis deserve to be used to mentally ill individuals who carry out not have the capacity to reason or to manage one"s affairs. It is occasionally provided as a defense discussion for a plea that the defendant cannot be hosted legally responsible for his actions.

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non compos mentis = not of sound mind

Footnotes

1. Mens, mentis survives in the Romance languages as an adverbial ending—e.g., dolcemente (Italian), dulcimente (Spanish), and also doucement (French), all of which suppose “sweetly,” are acquired from the Latin expression dulci mente (“through a sweet mind”).