Why have to a man are afraid wright here occasions of chance dominion, and tbelow is clear foreunderstanding of nothing? It is ideal to live without setup, yet one can. Do not fear marriage with your mommy, for many kind of men currently have actually lain via their mothers in desires. But these points are nopoint to the man who bears life easily.
You are watching: From what latin phrase is the term superego derived?
SOPHOCLES (fifth-century BCE playwright), Oedipus Tyrannus
MODERN THEORIES OF PSYCHOLOGY
The modern study of psychology consists of the investigation of huguy (and also animal) actions in all its develops and also manifestations, although many laymales still tfinish to check out it in the conmessage of the psychoanalytic theories of huguy action and also motivation developed by the early twentieth-century thinkers Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, and also their followers. The language of psychology has so permeated our modern vocabulary that many of these terms have shed their original, narrowly conceived, and specialized definitions. Like the terminology of all of the modern scientific researches and also modern technologies, the vocabulary is based mainly on learned borrowings from Greek and Latin.
Greek or Latin Word
as learned borrowing, provided as predeal with, psycho-
heart, mind, courage, passion
healthy and balanced, sane
In the earliest usage of the word psychology in English (seventeenth century), it supposed the study of points concerning the soul.
Who Am I?
According to Sigmund Freud, the human psyche is composed of 3 interactive components:
It. The repository of our instinctual drives that are repeatedly striving for expression
I. That part of the psyche that reacts to and also experiences the exterior world; our feeling of self; consciousness, memory
Super (above) + ego. That part of the personality pertained to with ethics, and shaped by the moral traditional and social ideals of the community
The god of love, Cupid, and Psyche, the mortal girl whom he saved from fatality (British Museum)
ANCIENT PSYCHOLOGICAL THEORY
In the classical human being, many playwlegal rights, poets, and also even historians discovered their resource product in prehistoric myths that vividly described the often facility psychological dynamics within the framework of the family members. The Oedipus facility, as presented by Freud and based on the fifth-century BCE play Oedipus Tyrannus by Sophocles, is probably the many famed of such conflicts; however Greek myth gives us through many various other examples of the consequences of familial passions, examples that still seem to be psychologically valid 2,500 years later.
Hence, the study of classical myth has offered an illumination of the sources of human behavior for contemporary students of psychology, many kind of of whom watch as a major aim of Greek myths the explace and resolution of the desires, demands, and also disputes that proceed to drive our actions. Several characters from Greek myth, bereason of their extreme habits, have provided their names to a variety of psychological syndromes. Here are just a few:
narcissism: extreme admiration of one"s own physical or mental qualifications. The handsome Narcissus was punished by the gods for his pride and self-absorption. Casupplied by Nemesis, the goddess of retribution, to autumn in love via own reflection in a pool, he might not bear to tear himself away, and also hence faded right into nothingness. All that continued to be was the freduced that carries his name.
Electra complex: In psychoanalytic concept, those symptoms are said to be brought about by the suppressed sexual desire of a daughter for her father. Electra, daughter of King Agamemnon, conspired with her brother Orestes to murder their mommy, Clytemnestra, after Clytemnestra had actually eliminated the king.
Oedipus complex: According to Freud, the desire of the son for sex-related gratification via the parent of the opposite sex. The kid frequently exhibits an intense disfavor of the other parent. Oedipus, as you will certainly recontact, unwittingly (perhaps) killed his father and married his mother. But then aobtain, as Jocasta, Oedipus"s mom (and wife), states, “In dreams many kind of a male has slept through his mother.”
familia, familiae or
genos (γένος) or
filius, filii; filia, filiae
Be Nice to Your Mother
The Latin expression, alma mater, which means nourishing mom, was the phrase provided by primitive Romans to explain their nation. Today we use the expression to the colleges we attfinished bereason their duty is to foster and also nourish us intellectually. When you graduate, you can say that, having been nouriburned by education, you are analumnus (male; plural alumni) or an alumna (female; plural alumnae). Both alma and also alumnus (alumna) are obtained from alo-alere = nourish.
LOVE AND MARRIAGE
In Greek myth, marriage frequently proves to be dangerous, indeed, even fatal: Clytemnestra killed her husband also, Agamemnon, upon his return from the Trojan War, although some said that it was via good reason. He had actually sacrificed their daughter Iphigeneia before establishing off for Troy, and also then brought earlier a Trojan princess, Cassandra, as part of his booty. Medea had actually derived the Golden Fleece for the Greek hero Jaboy after he promised her marital relationship, yet she murdered their kids as soon as Jason divorced her in order to marry another woman.
uxor, uxoris or
gyne, gynaecos (γυνη´) or
maritus, mariti or
aner, andros (ἀνήρ) or
STATES OF FEELING
Love and Desire
Greek or Latin Word
cf. amicus, amici
Hatred and also Disapproval
Greek or Latin Word
as learned borrowing, provided as
cf. hostis, hostis
as learned borrowing, provided as
Oh What a Tangled Internet We Weave …
Perhaps the worst offense versus the magnificent was hybris, an expression of insolence so delusional that it might lead one to think that one"s strength or power was equal to that of the gods. Needless to say, it was always puniburned. According to Greek myth, Arachne was a beautiful young girl that boasted that her spinning was finer than that of Athena. The two had actually a contest, and also indeed, the work-related of the mortal girl was better. The goddess flew right into a rage and began beating negative Arachne, that, in despair, hung herself. But in a last act of revenge for Arachne"s hybris, Athena turned Arachne into a spider. Arachne"s talent endured her transdevelopment, but, and also she continues to spin also now.
Arachne (ἀράχνη) = spider
hybris (ὕβρις) = shamelessness; in Greek myth, believing that one is the equal to the gods
I"m Okay. Are You Okay?
Of course, our eactivities and behavior may seem to others to be abnormal, and also one person"s are afraid might be another"s madness or uncontrollable desire.
Greek or Latin Word
cf. sanum, sani
THE FOUR HUMORS
In antiquity and also in the Center Ages, it was generally thought by Greek and Roman clinical practitioners that the body included four different fluids, or humors. They were yellow bile, babsence bile, blood, and also phlegm. Doctors sassist that these 4 humors, once in proper balance, created great health; however an excess or deficiency of any kind of one of them could reason both physical and also mental disease. Even this day, derivatives of these words are not just offered to define moods and personality forms, but likewise have actually come to be component of the contemporary psychiatric vocabulary.
Etrushave the right to sarcophagus lid (Villa Giulia, Rome)
Latin or Greek Word
cf. melas, melanos (μέλας)
Tbelow were other theories of personality and also behavior in antiquity. For instance, many type of civilization thought (and some still do) that the planets and also various other heavenly bodies impact human habits and health and wellness, and that people born under the indicators of certain planets share the temperaments of the gods who subjugated those planets, and also that offered the planets their names.
The Planets and also Their Romale Gods
winged messenger of the gods, constantly on the move
goddess of love and sexual desire
god of war
ruler of the gods, who thus had reason to be happy
leader of the gloomy underworld
goddess whose changes in develop and also shape were believed to impact huguy behavior
But various other gods could additionally influence humale and also pet actions. Pan, the Greek god of flocks and herds, chosen to play his pipes in the countryside; the shrill high notes would certainly reason the pets to act in strange ways. It was likewise sassist that he might overwhelm his opponents just by shouting, for his cry would certainly reason them to feel sudden, unreasonable terror, or panic.
SCIENCE AND THE HUMAN MIND
Of course, culture this particular day is obsessed through precision and clinical measurement, also in the realm of huguy habits. Modern psychology has actually devised all sorts of indicates to analyze how and also why we act, and has actually emerged devices whereby human knowledge is thought to be accurately measured. The Greeks and also Romans were not so specific in their dimensions, however we still use their vocabulary to define levels of intellectual ability. Who knows? Perhaps the Greeks and Romans were smarter than we are.
Greek or Latin Word
one"s own, private
cf. idio- offered as presolve in English,
cf. baculum, baculi
Don"t Be Foolish
An oxymoron is a number of speech that joins 2 terms that are inconsistent. Here are two examples:
“Jumbo shrimp are pretty ugly.”
“He is plainly perplexed.”
όξύς = clever, sharp
You"re an Idiot!
The word idiotes (ἰδιώτης) was applied to those that cared only for their personal affairs and also did not participate in public life; thus, its interpretation became pejorative.
A. In the complying with concerns, fill in the empty with the literal definition of the italicized word or part of word. Make sure that your sentences are grammatically correct.
1. A magnifying glass __________objects __________.
2. The minimum wage is the __________ amount one have the right to be passist.
3. The mayor of the city is meant to have __________ power than various other officials.
4. Someone who is demented is __________ his __________.
5. Our individualities are really simply __________.
6. In a sorority, the members think about themselves to be __________.
7. If you name your dog Fido, you intend him to be __________.
8. A misogynist __________ __________.
9. Cupid was the Roman god of __________.
10. Inanimate objects carry out __________ have actually __________.
11. Genealogy is __________ __________.
12. A person through a martial displace enjoys __________.
13. An egotist is an individual whose favorite pronoun is __________.
14. To ameliorate a case is to make it __________.
15. When theorists search for the eternal verities, they are in search of those concepts that are always __________.
16. An ultimatum is a __________ proposal or demand also.
17. A pessimist is always certain that the __________ will certainly happen.
18. An optimist constantly thinks the __________ about scenarios.
19. He made a fallacious dispute bereason he wanted to __________ me.
20. His erratic actions made me think that his mind was __________.
21. He was so arrogant that also his friends assumed him guilty of __________.
22. He was discovered guilty of bigamy when he admitted that he had actually __________ __________.
23. His infamous behavior brought __________ to his family.
24. His odious habits caused everyone to __________him.
25. Idiosyncratic habits is __________ an individual.
26. A Francophile__________ all things French.
27. The pseudonymous writer provided a __________ __________ bereason he did not wish to reveal his identification.
28. Psychosis is a diseased problem of the __________.
29. I knew I had actually percreated badly, yet his pejorative comments made me feel __________.
B. Answer the complying with concerns. If you are not sure of the answers, examine your unalinked dictionary.
30. Philosophers have constantly questioned the summum bonum. What is it? __________ __________
31. Of what crime are you guilty if you kill your brother? __________
32. Wright here must your superiors be? __________
33. In the counting of votes, what is the distinction between a plurality and a majority? _________________________________________________________________________
34. What is the literal interpretation of matriarchy? __________ __________What is its current usage? ____________________
35. What is the distinction between sanguine and also sanguinary?____________________________________________________________________
36. What is the literal interpretation of animus? __________What is its current usage?_______________________________________________________
37. What is the distinction in meaning between amiable and amicable?_____________________________________________________________
38. What is the definition of the Latin expression persona non grata? ____________________
39. What carry out the etymologies of the words matrimony and also matron tell us around the primitive Roman understanding of the function of marriage? ______________________________
40. Their marital bliss was shattered as soon as he committed uxoricide. What had actually he done? ____________________
41. What type of cell is a gamete? __________
42. What is the literal meaning of patrimony? __________What is its present usage? __________
43. I know it"s not really true, however it appears to me that eincredibly time the moon is complete, world act like__________.
44. His moronic habits encouraged me that he was a __________.
How would you characterize someone whose personality can be characterized as:
What are the complying with fears, creates of madness, or desires?
C. By now, you need to be able to recognize Romance language cognates of Latin words. Without consulting a dictionary, see if you deserve to number out the English definitions of each of the adhering to French (F.), Spanish (S.), or Italian (I.) words.
64. rey (S. noun)
70. dire (F. verb)
65. amigo (S. noun)
71. odio (I. and also S. noun)
66. malo (S. adjective)
72. con (I. and also S. prep.)
67. animato (I. adjective)
73. padre (S. noun)
68. faire (F. verb)
74. verdad (S adjective)
69. fratello (I. noun)
Contrasted to What?
The comparative and also superlative develops of Latin adjectives can additionally have English derivatives.
bonus, boni = good
melior = better
optimus = best
exter, exteri = outsidecf. adverb extra
exterior = outer
extremus = outermany,farthest
magnus, magni = large
major = larger
maximus = largest
malus, mali = bad
pejor = worse
pessimus = worst
multus, multi = much
plus, pluris = more
plurimus = most
parvus, parvi = small
minor/minus = smaller
minimus = smallest
superus, superi = abovecf. preplace super
remarkable = higher
supremus or summus =highest possible or last
ulter, ultri = beyondcf. adverb ultra
ulterior = farther
ultimus = farthest, last
The coming before adjectives are irregular in the development of their comparative and also superlative forms; the consistent superlative finishing is -issimus (-issima, -issimum). How does that finishing show up in the miscellaneous Romance languages?
It"s My Fault
If you should apologize, yet want to present off at the exact same time, you deserve to always say mea culpa.
No, It"s Not
The legal term non compos mentis deserve to be used to mentally ill individuals who carry out not have the capacity to reason or to manage one"s affairs. It is occasionally provided as a defense discussion for a plea that the defendant cannot be hosted legally responsible for his actions.
See more: Why Do I Keep Getting Kicked From Gta Online Sessions ? Rockstar Games Customer Support
non compos mentis = not of sound mind
1. Mens, mentis survives in the Romance languages as an adverbial ending—e.g., dolcemente (Italian), dulcimente (Spanish), and also doucement (French), all of which suppose “sweetly,” are acquired from the Latin expression dulci mente (“through a sweet mind”).