Activities are subparts of processes that receive inputs and produce outputs.Can only be performed by humans.

You are watching: Are formally defined, standardized processes that involve day-to-day operations.

How Do Structured Processes Differ from Dynamic Processes?

Some processes are stable, almost fixed sequences of activities and data flows.The process of a sales clerk accepting a return at Nordstrom is fixed.Structured processes – formally defined, standardized processes that involve day-to-day operations.Accepting a return, placing an order, purchasing raw materials, and so forth.Dynamic processes – flexible, informal, and adaptive processes that normally involve strategic and less structured managerial decisions and activities.

How Do Processes Vary By Organizational Scope?

Workgroup process – to enable workgroups to fulfill the character, purpose, and goals of a particular group or department.A workgroup information system – to support one or more processes within the workgroup.Workgroup information systems are called functional information systems.The program component of a functional information system is called a functional application.Enterprise processes – span an organization and support activities in multiple departments.Enterprise information systems support one or more enterprise processes.Inter-enterprise processes – span two or more independent organizations.Inter-enterprise information systems support one or more inter-enterprise processes.

Q7-2 How Can Information Systems Improve Process Quality?

Process efficiency – a measure of the ratio of process outputs to inputs.Process effectiveness – a measure of how well a process achieves organizational strategy.

How Can Processes Be Improved?

Change the process structureChange the process resourcesChange both process structure and resources

How Can Information Systems Improve Process Quality?

Performing an activityAugmenting a human who is performing an activityControlling data quality and process flow

Q7-3 How Do Information Systems Eliminate the Problems of Information Silos?

Information Silo – the condition that exists when data are isolated in separate information system

What Are the Problems of Information Silos?

When an organization has inconsistent duplicated data, it is said to have a data integrity problem.A consequence of such disjointed activities is the lack of integrated enterprise information.

How Do Organizations Solve the Problems of Information Silos?

One way to fix such a silo I to integrate the data into a single database and revise applications to use that database.

Q7-4 How Do CRM, ERP, and EAI Support Enterprise Processes?

Business process reengineering – the activity of altering existing and designing new business processes to take advantage of new information systems.Inherent processes – are predesigned procedures for using the software products, saved organizations from the expense, delays, and risks of business process reengineering.A customer relationship management system – a suite of applications, a database, and a set of inherent processes for managing all the interactions with the customers, from lead generation to customer service.Customer life cycle: marketing, customer acquisition, relationship management, and loss/churn.

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)

Enterprise resource planning – a suite of applications called modules, a database, and a set of inherent processes for consolidating business operations into a single, consistent, computering platform.ERP system – an information system based on ERP technology.

Enterprise Application Integration

A suite of software applications that integrates existing systems by providing layers of software that connect applications together.

Q7-5 What Are the Elements of an ERP System?

Supply chain, manufacturing, CRM, human resources, accountingHardware, ERP application programs, ERP databases,Trigger – a computer program stored within the database that runs to keep the database consistent when certain conditions arise.Stored procedure – a computer program stored in the database that is used to enforce business rules.

Business Process Procedures

Some ERP vendors call the inherent processes that are defined in the ERP solution process blueprintsVendors sometimes train the organization’s employees, called Super Users, to become in-house trainers in training sessions called train the trainer.To reduce the work, ERP vendors provide starter kits for specific industries called industry- specific solutions.

Q7-6 What Are the Challenges of Implementing and Upgrading Enterprise Information Systems?

Collaborative management, Requirement gaps, Transition problems, employee resistance, New technologySelf-efficacy – a person’s belief that he or she can be successful at his or her job.

Q7-7 How Do Inter-Enterprise IS Solve the Problems of Enterprise Silos?

Providers keep track of patient histories and maintain records of exercise recommendationsThe isolation of this exercise data causes problems.Distributed systems – an application processing is distributed across multiple computing devices.

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Q7-8 2026?

Hybrid model- ERP customers will store most of their data on cloud servers managed by cloud vendors and store sensitive data on servers that they manage themselves.Enable mobile devices to process ERP and other enterprise applications form wherever they happen to be to managers, and decision makers.Mobile devices still present a major security threats.Technology’s effect on enterprise systems will be widespread because enterprise systems are widespread.