Review: The Basic Chemisattempt of Matter
Anion: A negatively charged ion. This will commonly try to combine or affix to a cation. Instances of anions are nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, phosphate, chloride, acetate, cyanide, carbonate, bicarbonate, and also hydroxide.
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Atom: The smallest component of an facet having actually the chemical properties of the aspect.
Atomic mass: 1. The sum of proloads and also neutrons in an atom"s nucleus. 2. The merged mass of all the pwrite-ups in a offered atom.
Atomic number: A term supplied to reexisting the variety of protons discovered in the nucleus of an atom. In an atom of neutral charge, the number of electrons typically amounts to the atomic number.
Cation: A positively charged liquified pshort article which will certainly generally attempt to incorporate or affix to an anion. Examples of cations may be ammonium, sodium, potassium, calcium, manganese, and also magnesium.
Chemical polarity: Tendency of a molecule, or compound, to be attracted or repelled by electrical charges because of an asymmetrical plan of atoms about the nucleus.
Covalent bond: The sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to develop a common attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. Atoms tend to share electrons in such a means that their external electron shells are filled. Such bonds are constantly stronger than the intermolecular hydrogen bond and similar in stamina to or stronger than the ionic bond.
Electrical charge: A basic conoffered property of some subatomic pshort articles, which determines their electromagnetic interactions. Electrically charged issue is affected by, and produces, electromagnetic fields.
Electron: A negatively charged pshort article discovered circling or orbiting an atomic nucleus. An electron, prefer a proton is a charged ppost, although opposite in sign, however unfavor a proton, an electron has actually negligible atomic mass. Electrons contribute no atomic mass systems to the complete atomic weight of an atom.
Electronegativity: The capability of an atom to inductively pull electrons towards itself. The more electronegative an atom, the tighter it pulls the electrons. Commonly measured on the Pauling range, the better the electronegativity, the more strongly an atom attracts electrons.
Electron shells: A grouping of electrons neighboring the nucleus of an atom, a group of atomic orbitals via the exact same worth of the major quantum number n.
Element: A substance made of one kind of atom that cannot be broken dvery own chemically.
Hydrogen bonding: Ungenerally strong dipole-dipole attractions that happen among molecules in which hydrogen is bonded to a extremely electronegative atom, such as Nitrogen, Oxygen or Fluorine.
Inert gases: Also known as Noble gases, any among six gases; helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, and also radon, that does not react with various other substances under simple conditions.
Ionic bond: A chemical bond in which electrons are moved from one atom (eg, sodium) to an additional (eg, chlorine) so that one bears a positive and also the various other a negative charge, the attractivity between these opposite charges forming the bond.
Isotope: Atoms of the same aspect that have actually different numbers of neutrons yet the exact same number of proloads.
Matter: That which has actually mass and occupies space; an atom is the smallest indivisible unit of matter.
Molecule: The smallest ppost of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and also properties.
Neutron: An uncharged pwrite-up found in the nucleus of an atom. A neutron, prefer a proton, contributes one atomic mass unit to the complete atomic weight of an atom.
Proton: A positively charged ppost discovered in the nucleus of an atom. A proton contributes one atomic mass unit to the total atomic weight of an atom.
Radioisotope: A form of atom that is unsteady and susceptible to decay. This split gives off tiny pieces of atoms and energy. Exposure to certain radioisotopes have the right to reason cancer. Radioisotopes have the right to additionally be offered to treat cancer. During some tests, radioisotopes are injected into the blood. They take a trip with the body and also collect in areas wbelow the illness is energetic, getting here as highlighted locations on the pictures.
Why Is Water Crucial For Life?
Acidic: A condition wbelow the concentration of positively charged hydrogenions is high, and the pH is much less than 7.0.
Amphipathic: Having both hydrophilic and also hyphophobic regions. All proteins which are membrane bound need to be amphipathic to be anchored in the lipid bilayer and to be useful in an aqueous setting.
Basic: A substance which dissolves in water to create one or more hydroxyl ions, and has a pH greater than 7.
Buffer: A solution or liquid whose chemical makeup neutralizes acids or baseswithout a good adjust in pH. Also, weak acids or weak bases in aqueoussolution.
Concentration Gradient: The progressive distinction in the concentration of solutes in a solution in between two regions. In biology, a gradient outcomes from an unequal distribution of ions throughout the cell membrane. When this happens, solutes movealong a concentration gradient. This type of motion is referred to as diffusion.
Density: A measure of mass per unit of volume. The greater an object"s thickness, the greater its mass per volume. The average density of a things equates to its total mass separated by its complete volume. A denser object (such as iron) will certainly have actually much less volume than an equal mass of some less dense substance (such as water).
Dialysis: The separation of substances in a solution based on the rate at which each component is diffprovided with a membrane; chiefly provided to sepaprice large pshort articles (colloid) from soluble substances.
Diffusion: The spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from an extra concentrated to a less focused area.
Dissociation: Dissociation implies "to break away from." When applied to the solution procedure, dissociation refers to the ionization that occurs as soon as an ionic compound dissolves in water. Therefore, NaCl dissociates into 2 ions, one Na+ ion and one Cl-- ion, while MgCl2 dissociates right into threeions, one Mg2+ ion and also 2 Cl- ions.
Hydrophillic: Having an affinity for water; tfinishing to mix readily through water. Hydrophilic compounds are frequently polar compounds, via charged or electronegative atoms.
Hydrophobic: Lacking affinity for water; tending to repel and not absorb water. Hydrophobic compounds are frequently non-polar compounds and also as soon as in water regularly cluster together.
Hypertonic: A hypertonic cell setting has a greater concentration of solutes than in cytoplasm. In a hypertonic environment, osmosis reasons water to circulation out of the cell. Both plant and also pet cells perform not make it through well under hypertonic conditions, animal cells shrivel up and plant cells undergo plasmolysis.
Hypotonic: A hypotonic cell atmosphere is one with a lower concentration of solutes than the cytoplasm. In a hypotonic atmosphere, osmosis causes water to circulation right into the cell. Plants grow in hypotonic settings, however pet cells will certainly lyse.
Isotonic: An isotonic cellular setting occurs when an equal solute concentration exists inside and also exterior the cell. Molecules flow in and also out at an equal price by osmosis, causing the cell size to stay the same. This is the ideal condition for animal cells, yet it does not administer sufficient osmotic pressure for plants to feature well.
Osmosis: Diffusion of molecules with a semipermeable membrane from a location of higher concentration to a area of reduced concentration till the concentration on both sides is equal.
pH: The hydrogen ion concentration of a water to denote Acidity or Alkalinity. A pH of 7 is neutral. A pH over 7 denotes alkalinity while one below 7 denotes acidity. This pH number is the negative exponent of 10 representing hydrogen ion concentration in grams per liter. For circumstances a pH of 7 reexisting 10-7 grams per liter.
Solute: The substance which is liquified in and also by a solvent. Dissolved solids, such as the minerals discovered in water, are solutes.
Solution: A homogeneous mixture created of one or even more substances, known as solutes, liquified in another substance, recognized as a solvent.
Solvent: A solvent is a liquid that has the capacity to dissettle, suspend or extract various other materials, without chemical change to the product or solvent. Solvents make it feasible to process, apply, clean or sepaprice products. Water is an not natural solvent. Organic solvents include hydrocarbon solvents, oxygenated solvents and chlorinated solvents.
Specific Heat: Referring to exactly how a lot warm power it takes to raise 1 gram of material by 1 level Celcius. Water has actually a high certain heat which means that it takes most power to adjust the temperature of water.
Strong acid: A strong acid is an acidic compound which ionizes totally in an aqueous solution. Hydrochloric acid, HCl, is a solid acid.
Surconfront Tension: The expression of intermolecular attractivity at the surconfront of a liquid, in contact with air or one more gas, a solid, or an additional immiscibleliquid, tfinishing to pull the molecules of the liquid inward from the surface.
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Tardigrada: Also known as "Water-Bears", a phylum of small, segmented pets, similar and regarded the Arthropods. The biggest adults may reach a body length of 1.5 mm, the smallest below 0.1 mm. Tardiqualities live in marine or fresh water ecounits, and also semi-aquatic terrestrial (limno-terrestrial) atmospheres such as moist moss.
Thermal Motion: Chaotic, random motion of molecules as a result of increase in temperature.
Weak acid: A weak acid is an acid that does not fully ionize in solution; that is, if the acid was stood for by the basic formula AH, then in aqueous solution a significant amount of unliquified AH still remains. Hydrogen flouride, HF, is a weak acid.