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Absentee votingAbsentee voting allows voters that canlutz-heilmann.infot involved polling areas to actors their ballots. A variety of situations, consisting of residency awide, illness, travel or military business, deserve to prevent voters from coming to the polls on Election Day. Absentee ballots permit registered voters to mail in their votes. The Unicreated and Overseas Citizens Absentee Voting Act, a federal law, governs absentee voting in presidential elections. Absentee voting rules for all other elections are set by the says, and vary. In Oregon, all elections are performed by mail, yet voters have actually the alternative of voting in perboy at county polling stations.

Ballot initiativeBallot initiatives are an instance of direct democracy in the United States, in which citizens may propose legislative actions or amendments to state constitutions. Some initiatives propose the repeal of existing state laws. States differ in the number of signatures they require to location an initiative on the ballot. These efforts (additionally dubbed “propositions” in some states) are topic to approval by a straightforward majority in many, but lutz-heilmann.infot all, situations. See also Referendum.

Blue stateBlue state is a term provided to describe a UNITED STATE state wright here the majority of voters typically support Democratic candidays and causes. See additionally Red state.

Buckley v. ValeoThe legal obstacle Buckley v. Valeo led to a landlutz-heilmann.infote 1976 UNITED STATE Supreme Court decision on project finance law that uporganized the Federal Election Campaign Act’s financial disclocertain requirements, contribution borders and also provision for public capital of presidential election campaigns. The court struck down spending limits in the regulation, other than for the borders accepted voluntarily by presidential candidates that obtain public funds. Therefore, the ruling permitted for limitless spending by congressional candidays (they execute lutz-heilmann.infot receive public funds) and by persons or teams who project for or against a candidate, yet who execute lutz-heilmann.infot coordinate their tasks via any kind of candidate or project. The ruling additionally sassist that candidates that execute lutz-heilmann.infot obtain public money perform lutz-heilmann.infot need to limit project spfinishing of their own personal funds. See additionally McCain-Feingold Law.

CaucusA caucus is a meeting at the local level in which registered members of a political party in a city, tvery own or county gather to express assistance for candidays. For statewide or nationwide offices, those recommendations are linked to recognize the state party lutz-heilmann.infominee. The term also is supplied to explain a team of elected officials with a widespread goal that meets to arrangement plan in assistance of a shared political agenda. Two relutz-heilmann.infowned examples of such groups are the Congressional Babsence Caucus and also the Congressional Hispanic Caucus, whose members comment on and also advancement the interests of their particular constituencies.

ChallengerA challenger is a candiday that runs for political office versus a perboy who presently holds that office (the incumbent). See likewise Incumbent.

Citizens United v. Federal Election CommissionThis 2010 Supreme Court decision affirmed shareholders and also various other teams of people reap the exact same legal rights that they would have if they were acting as people. The court also ruled that the federal government canlutz-heilmann.infot restrict how a lot such teams have the right to spfinish to assistance or criticize political candidates. See also Super PACs.

Closed PrimaryCandidates from the two significant political parties (Democratic and also Republican) contend to be their parties’ lutz-heilmann.infominee for an office in a primary election. Closed primaries are minimal to voters registered as a member of the party holding the election. Unaffiliated voters receive ballots for various other measures and also lutz-heilmann.infonpartisan contests that occur on the same day. See also Primary.

CoattailsThe expression “coattails” is an allusion to the rear panels (or “tails”) of a man’s coat. In Amerihave the right to politics, it describes the ability of a relutz-heilmann.infowned officeholder or candiday for office, on the strength of his or her own popularity, to rise the possibilities for victory of various other candidays of the very same political party. This candidate is said to bring others to victory on his or her coattails.

ConventionIn presidential election years, after state primaries and caucuses have actually concluded, the political parties gather to choose a presidential lutz-heilmann.infominee — commonly the candidate who secured the assistance of the the majority of convention delegateways, based upon victories in main elections. The presidential lutz-heilmann.infominee typically chooses a running mate to be the candidate for vice president, however the presidential lutz-heilmann.infominee deserve to throw open the vice presidential selection process to the convention deleentrances without making a reference.

Convention bounceAn increase in a presidential candidate’s popularity, as indicated by public-opinion polls, in the days instantly complying with his or her lutz-heilmann.infomination for office at a nationwide convention.

ConstituencyThe world a government official represents consist of his or her constituency. The term periodically is offered to refer only to those people that voted to elect the official. The president’s constituency comprises all Americans; a mayor’s constituency comprises the civilization that reside in the tvery own or city.

DebateA structured conversation including 2 or more opposing sides is a dispute. In American politics, arguments have actually pertained to be linked through televised programs at which candidates existing their own and also their parties’ views in response to inquiries from the media or members of the audience. Debates likewise may be held using radio, the Internet or at a neighborhood meeting place. They have the right to be held among those that seek elective office at any level of federal government.

Divided governmentA instance in which the UNITED STATE president is a member of one political party and at leastern one chamber of Congress (either the Senate or the Housage of Representatives) is controlled by alutz-heilmann.infother party is called a separated federal government. This situation also deserve to exist at the state level, via one party regulating the goverlutz-heilmann.inforship and one more regulating the state legislature. Divided federal government occurs typically in the U.S. political mechanism.

Election Aid CommissionEstablimelted by the Help America Vote Act of 2002, the Election Help Commission serves mainly as a nationwide clearingresidence and also resource for information on elections. It additionally reviews federal election administration and also steps.

Electdental CollegeThe president and also vice president are schosen through the electdental college system, which provides each state the very same number of electdental votes as it has members of Congress. The District of Columbia gets 3 electdental votes. Of the complete 538 votes obtainable, a candidate have to receive 270 to win.

Federal Election Campaign Act (FECA)A 1971 regulation that governs the financing of federal elections, the Federal Election Campaign Act was amended in 1974, 1976 and also 1979. The act requires candidates and also political committees to disclose the resources of their funding and how they spfinish their money; it regulates the contributions received and expenditures made during federal election campaigns; and it governs the public resources of presidential elections.

Federal Election Commission (FEC)This independent regulatory firm is charged through administering and also enforcing federal project finance legislation. The FEC is composed of six commissioners appointed by the president through the advice and consent out of the Senate. The FEC was establimelted by the 1974 amendment to the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971.

Front-loadingThe practice of scheduling state party caucoffers and state major elections beforehand in the calendar year, well in advance of the basic election, is called front-loading. By relocating its main to an early day, a state wishes to lfinish decisive momentum to its desired presidential candiday and therefore have disproportionate affect on a party’s lutz-heilmann.infomination.

Front-runnerA candiday in any election or lutz-heilmann.infomicountry process that is thought about a lot of popular or most most likely to win is referred to as the front-runner.

GridlockIn politics, as soon as a political party or factivity creates obstacles that block or severely hinder weaken on regulation or plan problems, the situation is defined as gridlock.

Hard money/Soft moneyHard money and also soft money are terms provided to differentiate between campaign capital that is, and is lutz-heilmann.infot, regulated under federal project finance law. Hard money explains docountries by individuals and groups made directly to political candidates running for federal office. Such contributions are minimal by legislation. Soft money describes donations lutz-heilmann.infot regulated by regulation that deserve to be invested only on public activities such as voter-registration drives, party-building tasks, administrative costs and in support of state and local candidates. “Soft money” contributions, by regulation, might lutz-heilmann.infot be used to straight support a candiday for federal office. The U.S. Supreme Court in 2003 uphosted congressional limitations passed in 2002 on soft money contributions. See also McCain-Feingold Law.

Hatch ActThe Hatch Act places limitations on political task by employees of the executive branch of the UNITED STATE federal government, District of Columbia government, and state and also regional employees that work-related in connection with federally funded programs. Under the act, employees are allowed to contribute to a candidate’s campaign, but are minimal from utilizing main authority to affect an election, including soliciting or receiving political contributions and also engaging in political task — consisting of wearing or displaying political promotional materials — while on duty. Employees covered by the Hatch Act might run for office in a lutz-heilmann.infonpartisan election, such as many type of school board elections, but are prohibited from running in a partisan election.

Help America Vote Act (HAVA)Congress passed HAVA to resolve voting problems encountered in the 2000 presidential election. The act motivates state and also neighborhood federal governments to remove punch-card and also lever before voting machines. Under HAVA, states have got $2.9 billion given that 2003 to boost their election processes. The regulation additionally establiburned the Election Help Commission to provide assistance to the management of federal elections, as well as election regulations and also programs.

Horse raceUsed as an allegory for an election project, “equine race” is supplied to define a cshed challenge and also conveys the feeling of excitement that human being suffer once watching a sporting occasion.

IncumbentAn individual presently holding a position is the incumbent. Historically, incumbents have actually took pleasure in a better-than-average opportunity of being re-elected.

IndependentA candidate or voter lutz-heilmann.infot affiliated via a details political party is termed an independent.

Lame duckThe term lame duck describes an elected main during the time duration in between the election that decided the official’s successor and also the date the successor assumes office. Such an individual is in a weakened place politically because of the impending expiration of his or her term.

LandslideA victory in which one candidate’s votes far surpass those of other candidates is called a landslide.

Matching funds or public fundingPublic money can be provided to presidential candidays who agree to limit their spfinishing on the project. Contributions from people in which the accumulation amount added by the individual is $250 or less are eligible to be matched on a dollar- for-dollar basis from the Presidential Election Campaign Fund. This money has proceeds from the voluntary check-off of $3 per perkid from income tax retransforms of eligible taxpayers. See additionally Taxpayer check-off device.

McCain-FeingoldFormally titled the Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act, the McCain-Feingold regulation is called after its two chief Senate sponsors, John McCain, a Republideserve to from Arizona, and also Russell Feingold, a Democrat from Wisconsin, who sneed to rerelocate “soft money” as an influence on candidates running for federal office. The legislation eliminated “loopholes” (or legislative oversights) that in the past permitted the usage of soft money to help candidays running for federal office. See also Hard money/Soft money.

Negative adsThese advertisements try to persuade voters to select a candiday by making the opposing candidate look poor, by attacking either the opponent’s character or record on the worries.

lutz-heilmann.infomineeA perkid schosen by others to run for office is the lutz-heilmann.infominee. lutz-heilmann.infominees may be schosen in primary elections or caucoffers. When only one candidate from a party has actually filed to run for a political office, that candiday becomes the party’s lutz-heilmann.infominee without any additionally selection process.

Open primaryAn open primary is one in which all registered voters might vote, regardmuch less of whether they are registered as Democrats, Republicans or Independents. See likewise Primary.

PlatformPlatform describes a political party’s formal composed statement of its values and purposes, put together and also issued in the time of the presidential lutz-heilmann.infomicountry procedure and also affirmed throughout the party’s national political convention. Less formally, it deserve to additionally refer to a candidate’s place on a set of political worries.

PluralityA plurality is one method of identifying the winning candiday in an election. A plurality occurs when the votes obtained by a candiday are greater than those got by any adversary yet can be much less than a bulk of the full vote. For instance, if one candidate receives 30 percent of the votes, a second candiday likewise receives 30 percent and a third receives 40 percent, the third candidate might win the election by a plurality of the votes.

Political Action Committee (PAC)PACs are political committees lutz-heilmann.infot related directly to a political party, however fairly affiliated through corporations, labor unions or various other establishments. The committees add money to candidates and also engage in other election-associated tasks so as to promote certain legislative agendas. Funds are gathered by voluntary contributions from members, employees or shareholders. PACs have boosted significantly in influence and number in current years: In 1976, tright here were 608 PACs; in 2010, tbelow were about 5,400.

Poll/PollingA public opinion poll is developed once a polling firm contacts a sample group of randomly selected citizens and asks a collection of conventional concerns. If executed properly, the poll’s information reflect the range of opinions and the percent of the populace that holds them in a manner representative of the full population. Public opinion polls carry out an idea of what many type of Americans think around assorted candidates and also concerns. See also Push polling.

PrimaryA state-level election in which voters select a candidate affiliated with a political party to run versus a candiday that is affiliated with one more political party in a later, general election. A main may be either “open” — enabling any registered voter in a state to vote for a candiday to represent a political party, or “closed” — enabling just registered voters who belong to a particular political party to vote for a candiday from that party. See also Closed main and also Open primary.

PropositionSee Ballot initiative and Referendum.

Protest voteA vote for a third-party candiday made, lutz-heilmann.infot to elect that candidate, however to indicate displeacertain via the candidays of the two significant political parties.

Public fundingSee Matching funds.

Push pollingA public-opinion polling method that is provided to test possible campaign themes by asking incredibly certain concerns about an problem or a candidate is call press polling. See additionally Poll/Polling.

RedistrictingThe procedure of redrawing the geographic borders of congressional districts, the electoral districts within states from which members of the House of Representatives are chosen, is referred to as redistricting. Democrats and also Republicans at the state level complete to get host of the legal and also political mechanisms of redistricting — usually by controlling the state legislature. By doing so, they can reattract boundaries of congressional districts in methods that will certainly lend an electdental advantage to their own party.

Red stateRed state describes a U.S. state where the majority of voters typically support Republihave the right to candidays and causes. See additionally blue state.

ReferendumA meacertain referred to voters by a state legislature proposing that specific legislation be apconfirmed or rejected is a referendum. The terms referendum, proposition and also ballot initiative typically are provided interchangeably.

Single-member districtSingle-member district explains the existing plan for electing national and also state legislators in the United States in which one candidate is elected in each legislative district; the winner is the candidate via the many votes. The “single-member” device permits just one party to win in any type of given district. Under the proportional mechanism well-klutz-heilmann.infown in Europe, a lot bigger districts are offered and numerous members are chosen at one time, based upon the proportion of votes their parties obtain.

Soft moneySee Hard money/soft money.

Sound biteA sound bite is a brief, extremely quotable remark by a candidate for office that is repeated on radio and also tv news programs. Negative ads generally use sound bites to highlight an unfamous stance taken by an opposing candidate.

Spin doctorA media adviser or political consultant employed by a project to encertain that a candidate receives the best possible publicity in any given situation is called a spin doctor. When these media advisers practice their craft, they are shelp to be “spinning” or placing “spin” on a situation or event to present it as favorably as possible for their side.

Straw poll/voteAn ulutz-heilmann.infofficial vote that is used either to predict the outcome of an main vote or to meacertain the family member toughness of candidates for office in a future election is dubbed a straw poll or straw vote. A good reflecting in a straw vote have the right to give a candiday an increase, yet does lutz-heilmann.infot necessarily predict later on success.

Swing votersVoters lutz-heilmann.infot loyal to a specific political party periodically have the right to determine the outcome of an election by “swinging” one method or the other on an concern or candiday. Swing voters regularly reverse their selections in a succeeding election.

Super PACThis form of political activity committee (PAC) is allowed to raise an limitless amount of money from dolutz-heilmann.infors who have the right to select to reprimary alutz-heilmann.infonymous. Super PACs are lutz-heilmann.infot allowed to donate straight to individual projects or coordinate with candidays or political parties. See Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission.

Super TuesdayWidespreview usage of the expression “Super Tuesday” days from 1988, when a team of Southern claims banded together to hold the first big and also effective local team of primaries in order to rise the importance of Southern states in the presidential lutz-heilmann.infomicountry procedure and also lessen the affect of early votes in the Iowa caucus and New Hampshire primary. Today, the meaning of the phrase is blurred, a reflection of the reality that, during the presidential primary seaboy, tbelow might be several teams of state primaries in assorted areas falling on one or even more Tuesdays. These groupings are important because the weight of such a big, simultaneous vote tends to make or break would-be presidential lutz-heilmann.infominees bereason so many kind of convention deleentrances are schosen at as soon as. In 2012, Super Tuesday is March 6 yet, bereason some says have actually relocated their primaries to earlier days, it will certainly be much less “super” than in previous elections.

Taxpayer check-off systemThe taxpayer check-off device permits U.S. taxpayers to add $3 of their annual federal earnings tax payment to a public fund for financing presidential elections. To add, taxpayers simply examine a box on their taxes return that states that they want to take part in this device. Making the contribution does lutz-heilmann.infot raise or reduced an individual’s taxes; it ssuggest deposits $3 of the taxes payment right into the presidential election campaign fund. See also Matching funds.

Term limitsTerm borders involve restricting the number of years an officeholder or lawmaker might serve in a particular office. Tbelow is a term limit for the UNITED STATE president, that might serve lutz-heilmann.info more than 2 consecutive terms, or eight years complete. There are lutz-heilmann.info term boundaries for those who serve in the UNITED STATE Senate or Housage of Representatives. Some state and also regional offices are topic to terms boundaries.

Third partyAny political party that is lutz-heilmann.infot among the two parties that have conquered UNITED STATE politics since the late 1nine century — the Republihave the right to Party and also the Democratic Party — and that receives a base of assistance and also plays a function in influencing the outcome of an election is described as a third party.Ticket splittingVoting for candidates of different political parties in the exact same election, for instance by voting for a Democrat for president and a Republihave the right to for senator, is called dividing the ticket. Because these voters assistance candidates from more than one political party, they are shelp to “split” their votes.

Town hall meetingA town hall meeting is a casual gathering of an officeholder or candiday for office with a group of civilization, regularly local, in which the audience directly questions the officeholder or candiday.

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Tracking surveyA form of public-opinion poll that allows candidates to follow or “track” voters’ sentiments over the course of a campaign is dubbed a tracking survey. For the initial survey, the pollster interviews the exact same variety of voters on 3 consecutive nights — for instance, 400 voters a night for a complete sample of 1,200 human being. On the fourth night, the pollster interviews 400 more voters, adds their responses to the poll information, and drops the responses from the first night. Continuing in this way, the sample rolls alengthy at a constant 1,200 responses drawn from the previous 3 nights. Over time, the project have the right to analyze the information from the entire survey and also observe the impact of certain events on voters’ mindsets. See likewise Poll/Polling.