The endocrine mechanism is comprised of all the significant glands, which act to control hormones in the body (Fig. 12-1). Various endocrine organs create and secrete these hormones in order to preserve homeostasis, which is identified as the state of dynamic equilibrium. In various other words, the hormones act together to store the body’s internal setting healthy and balanced. Some hormones act directly on taracquire organs; others stimulate specific glands to secrete yet different hormones.

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Hormone levels in the blood may vary according to bodily functions. Hormones typically occupational in pairs to maintain a healthy and balanced balance, via one acting to raise levels of other substances when needed and also the various other acting to reduced levels when required. For example, the hormones calcitonin and parathyroid hormone function in an opposite, yet complementary, fashion to maintain a healthy level of calcium in the blood.


Endocrine glands are responsible for the sexual maturation of people from childhood to adolescence and also right into adulthood. Endocrine glands also play a function in the body’s capacity to metabolize food and also keep energy.


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Learning Layout Tip Study Figure 12-1 and also then create a fun and also vivid 3-D version that similarly illustprices the pituitary gland also, the hormones it produces, and the taracquire organs the hormones impact. An instance could be a hanging mobile through the pituitary gland at the peak and labeled “hormone” strings, each of which dangles its particular targain organ(s). Once you’ve completed it, display and define your model to one or even more classmates.


The pituitary gland is a small, round, pea-sized structure attached to the lower surconfront of the hypothalamus in the brain. It is commonly dubbed the understand gland also because it controls every one of the other glands in the body. (Even so, the pituitary is actually controlled by the hypothalamus.) The pituitary gland also is separated into an anterior lobe and a posterior lobe. These 2 components feature individually to develop many kind of different hormones (Fig. 12-2). The anterior lobe secretes the adhering to six hormones:


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Growth hormone (GH) promotes the expansion of body structures, such as bones.

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) affects the expansion and functioning of the thyroid gland also.

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are referred to as gonadotropins bereason they act on the gonads—the ovaries in the female, to create an ovum, and also the testes in the male, to create sperm.

Prolactin acts on the mammary glands to develop milk.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) acts on the adrenal glands to secrete glucocorticoids, consisting of cortisol.


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FIGURE 12-2

Pituitary gland: (A) anterior and also posterior view (B) hormones and targain glands. (From Eagle, S., et al. <2009>. The skilled medical assistant. Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company, p. 523; with permission)


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