The Magnifying Glass

A magnifying glass is a convex lens that lets the observer watch a bigger image of the object being oboffered.

You are watching: A lens is used in a magnifying glass.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsThe magnification of a magnifying glass depends upon wright here it is inserted in between the user’s eye and also the object being regarded and upon the total distance in between eye and also object.The magnifying power is the ratio of the sizes of the imperiods developed on the user’s retina with and without the lens.The greatest magnifying power is acquired by placing the lens very close to the eye and also relocating both the eye and also the lens together to attain the ideal emphasis.Key Termslens: an item, typically made of glass, that focuses or deconcentrates the light that passes through itdiopter: a unit of meacertain of the power of a lens or mirror, equal to the reciprocal of its focal size in meters. Myopia is diagnosed and also measured in dioptersconvex: curved or bowed exterior favor the outside of a bowl or spbelow or circle

A magnifying glass is a convex lens that lets the observer watch a larger image of the object under observation. The lens is generally mounted in a frame with a take care of, as displayed listed below.

Magnifying Glass: A magnifying glass is a convex lens that lets the observer see a bigger photo of the object under observation.

The magnification of a magnifying glass depends upon wbelow the instrument is inserted between the user’s eye and also the object being perceived and also upon the complete distance in between eye and object. The magnifying power is the ratio of the sizes of the imeras formed on the user’s retina through and without the magnifying glass. When not making use of the lens, the user would frequently bring the object as cshed to the eye as possible without it becoming blurry. (This point, well-known as the near allude, varies via age. In a young kid its distance can be as short as five centimeters, while in an elderly perchild its distance may be as long as one or two meters. ) Magnifiers are generally defined using a “standard” value of 0.25m.

The highest possible magnifying power is obtained by putting the lens extremely cshed to the eye and moving both the eye and the lens together to attain the best focus. When the lens is used this way, the magnifying power can be uncovered through the following equation:

extMP_0 = frac14cdot Phi +1

wright here Phi = optical power. When the magnifying glass is held close to the object and also the eye is moved ameans, the magnifying power is approximated by:

extMP_0 = frac14cdot Phi

Usual magnifying glasses have actually a focal length of 25cm and an optical power of four diopters. This type of glass would be marketed as a 2x magnifier, yet a typical observer would see about one to 2 times magnification relying on the lens position.

The earliest evidence of a magnifying gadget was Aristophanes’s “lens” from 424 BC, a glass globe filled via water. (Seneca wrote that it can be provided to check out letters “no issue just how little or dim.”) Roger Bacon described the properties of magnifying glasses in the 13th century, and eyeglasses were additionally emerged in 13th-century Italy.

The Camera

Camages are optical devices that permit a user to record an image of an object, either on photo paper or digitally.

Learning Objectives

Key Takeaways

Key PointsCameras job-related very similarly to how the human eye functions. The iris is comparable to the lens; the pupil is equivalent to the aperture; and also the eyelid is similar to the shutter.Camages are a modern development of the cam obscura. The video camera obscura was a machine provided to job imeras.The the majority of important part of a video camera is the lens, which permits the photo to be amplified and focused. This have the right to be done manually on some cameras and immediately on more recent cameras.Movie cameras work by taking many type of images each second and also then reflecting each photo in order very easily to give the result that the pictures are relocating. This is wright here the name “movie” comes from.Key Termsshutter speed: The duration of time for which the shutter of a cam stays open as soon as exposing photographic film or other photosensitive product to light for the purpose of recording an image

What is a Camera?

A camera is a device that enables you to document imperiods, either on film or digitally. Cameras can document imperiods and also movies; movies themselves obtained their name from moving photos. Words electronic camera originates from the Latin phrase electronic camera obscura, which implies “dark chamber. ” The camera obscura was an early instrument for projecting imperiods from slides. The electronic camera that you usage now is an development of the camera obscura.

A electronic camera is generally consisted of of an opening, or aperture, that allows light to enter into a hollow area and a surconfront that documents the light at the various other end. In the 20th century, these imperiods would be stored on photographic paper that then had to be arisen, but now a lot of cameras store images digitally.

How does a Camera Work?

Camperiods have actually many components that enable them to occupational. Let’s look at them one at a time.

The Lens

The electronic camera lens allows the light to enter into the camera and also is typically convex. There are many kind of types of lenses that deserve to be used, each for a different form of photography. Tbelow are lenses for close-ups, for sports, for style, and also for portraits.

The 2 significant functions of a lens are focal length and also aperture. The focal length determines the magnification of the photo, and the aperture controls the light intensity. The f-number on a camera controls the shutter rate. This is the speed at which the shutter, which acts as its “eyelid,” opens up and also closes. The bigger the aperture, the smaller the f-number should be in order to get the shutter opened up and also closed totally. The time it takes to open and also close the shutter is called the expocertain. shows an instance of 2 lenses of the exact same size but via various apertures.


Some camages have a resolved emphasis, and just objects of a particular size at a particular distance from the camera will be in focus. Other cameras permit you to manually or automatically readjust the focus. mirrors a picture taken through a electronic camera with hands-on focus; this enables the user to recognize which objects will be in focus and also which will not. The variety of distance within which objects show up sharp and also clear is referred to as the depth of area.


The aperture controls the intensity of the light entering the camera, and also the shutter controls the expocertain — the amount of time that the light is permitted into the electronic camera.


The shutter is what opens up and also closes to enable light through the aperture. The speed at which it opens and closes is called the f-number. For a larger aperture, the f-number is generally tiny for a quick shutter rate. For a smaller aperture, the f-number is larger, enabling for a sreduced shutter rate.

The Compound Microscope

A compound microscopic lense is made of two convex lenses; the initially, the ocular lens, is close to the eye, and also the second is the objective lens.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsA compound microscope uses multiple lenses to develop an enlarged photo that is simpler for a human eye to see; this is due to the fact that the final picture is farther ameans from the observer, and therefore the eye is even more serene once viewing the image.The object is put just past to focal size of the objective lens. An enlarged photo is then captured by the objective lens, which acts as the object for the ocular lens. The ocular lens is closer to the brand-new photo than its focal size, causing it to act as a magnifying glass.Since the last picture is simply a multiple of the dimension of the initially image, the last magnification is a product of both magnifications from each lens.Key Termschromatic aberration: an optical aberration, in which a photo has actually colored fringes, brought about by differential refractivity of light of various wavelengths

A compound microscopic lense offers multiple lenses to magnify an image for an observer. It is made of two convex lenses: the first, the ocular lens, is cshed to the eye; the second is the objective lens.

Compound microscopes are a lot larger, heavier and more expensive than easy microscopes bereason of the multiple lenses. The benefits of these microscopes, as a result of the multiple lenses, are the lessened chromatic aberrations and exchangeable objective lenses to adjust magnification.

reflects a diagram of a compound microscopic lense made from 2 convex lenses. The first lens is referred to as the objective lens and is closest to the object being observed. The distance in between the object and also the objective lens is slightly much longer than the focal length, f0. The objective lens creates an enlarged photo of the object, which then acts as the object for the second lens. The second or ocular lens is the eyeitem. The distance between the objective lens and the ocular lens is slightly shorter than the focal length of the ocular lens, fe. This reasons the ocular lens to act as a magnifying glass to the initially picture and provides it also larger. Because the last picture is inverted, it is farther amethod from the observer’s eye and also for this reason much simpler to view.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsUntil the innovation of silver-backed mirrors, refrenergetic mirrors were the conventional for usage in telescopes. This was bereason of the very corrosive nature of the steels offered in older mirrors. Because then, reflective mirrors have actually reput refrenergetic mirrors in astronomy.Tbelow are 3 main kinds of optical telescopes: refrenergetic, reflective, and also catadioptric.Refrenergetic telescopes, such as the one created by Galileo, use an objective lens and also an eyepiece. The image is focused at the focal point and also allows the observer to view a brighter, larger image than they would certainly through their own eye.Reflective telescopes use curved mirrors that reflect light to create a picture. Sometimes a secondary mirror redirects the photo to an eyepiece. Other times the image is recorded by a sensor and also observed on a computer system display screen.Catadioptric telescopes integrate mirrors and also lenses to form an image. This device has a greater level of error correction than various other forms of telescopes. The combination of reflective and refractive elements permits for each facet to correct the errors made by the other.Key Termschromatic aberration: an optical aberration, in which an image has actually colored fringes, led to by differential refractivity of light of different wavelengthsspherical aberration: a kind of lens aberration that reasons blurriness, specifically amethod from the center of the lensachromatic: free from color; transmitting light without color-associated distortion

The telescope aids in monitoring of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation, such as x-rays, visible light, infrared, and also submillimeter rays. The initially telescopes were created in the Netherlands in the 1600s and also used glass lenses. Shortly after, people began to develop them making use of mirrors and called them showing telescopes.


The initially telescope was a refracting telescope made by spectacle machines in the Netherlands in 1608. In 1610, Galileo made his own enhanced architecture. After the refracting telescope was developed, civilization started to discover the idea of a telescope that provided mirrors. The potential benefits of utilizing mirrors rather of lenses were a reduction in spherical aberrations and the elimination of chromatic aberrations. In 1668, Newton constructed the first useful reflecting telescope. With the invention of achromatic lenses in 1733, shade aberrations were partly corrected, and shorter, more functional refracting telescopes can be created. Reflecting telescopes were not practical bereason of the extremely corrosive steels used to make mirrors till the introduction of silver-coated glass mirrors in 1857.

Types of Telescopes

Refracting Telescopes

The figure above is a diagram of a refracting telescope. The objective lens (at suggest 1) and also the eyepiece (allude 2) gather more light than a human eye have the right to collect by itself. The photo is concentrated at suggest 5, and the observer is presented a brighter, intensified online photo at suggest 6. The objective lens refracts, or bends, light. This reasons the parallel rays to converge at a focal point, and those that are not parallel converge on a focal airplane.

Reflecting Telescopes

Reflecting telescopes, such as the one presented in, usage either one or a mix of curved mirrors that reflect light to form an image. They allow an observer to see objects that have actually incredibly big diameters and are the major kind of telescope provided in astronomy. The object being observed is reflected by a curved primary mirror onto the focal plane. (The distance from the mirror to the focal aircraft is dubbed the focal length. ) A sensor might be located right here to record the picture, or a second mirror might be added to restraight the light to an eyeitem.

Catadioptric Telescopes

Catadioptric telescopes, such as the one shown in, incorporate mirrors and lenses to create a picture. This mechanism has actually a greater level of error correction than other kinds of telescopes. The combination of reflective and refrenergetic elements allows for each facet to correct the errors made by the other.

X-Ray Diffraction

The principle of diffraction is applied to document interference on a subatomic level in the study of x-ray crystallography.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsDiffraction is what happens when waves encounter irregularities on a surface or object and also are caused to interfere via each various other, either constructively or destructively.The Bragg regulation concerns using the laws of diffractivity to crystallography in order to acquire exact imeras of the lattice structures in atoms.The x-ray diffractometer is the machine provided to shave the right to the object by shooting a wave at it and recording the interference it encounters.Many XRDs are equipped via a Soller slit, which acts favor a polarizer for the event beam. It makes certain that the incident beam being recorded is perfectly parallel to the object being analyzed.Key Termsconstructive interference: Occurs when waves interfere with each other crest to cremainder and the waves are precisely in phase via each other.crystallography: The speculative science of determining the setup of atoms in solids.destructive interference: Occurs when waves interfere with each various other cremainder to trough (peak to valley) and are precisely out of phase with each other.

X-ray diffraction was discovered by Max von Laue, who won the Nobel Prize in physics in 1914 for his mathematical testimonial of observed x-ray diffractivity fads.

Diffraction is the irregularities brought about once waves enrespond to an object. You have the majority of likely oboffered the effects of diffractivity as soon as looking at the bottom of a CD or DVD. The rainbow pattern that shows up is a result of the light being interfered by the pits and also lands on the disc that organize the data. mirrors this result. Diffraction have the right to occur to any kind of form of wave, not simply visible light waves.

Bragg Diffraction

In x-ray crystallography, the term for diffraction is Bragg diffraction, which is the scattering of waves from a crystalline structure. William Lawrence Bragg formulated the equation for Bragg’s legislation, which relates wavesize to the angle of incidence and lattice spacing. Refer to for a diagram of the following equation:  extnlambda = 2 extd sin( heta)

n – numeric constant recognized as the order of the diffracted beamλ – wavelengthd – distance between lattice planesθ – angle of diffracted wave

The waves will suffer either constructive interference or disastrous interference. Similarly, the x-ray beam that is diffracted off a crystal will have actually some parts that have actually more powerful power, and also others that shed energy. This depends on the wavesize and also the lattice spacing.

The X-ray Diffractometer

The XRD machine offers copper steel as the element for the x-ray resource. Diffractivity patterns are videotaped over an extensive duration of time, so it is extremely necessary that the beam intensity continues to be constant. Film supplied to be supplied to document the data, but that was inconvenient because it had to be reput frequently. Now the XRD makers are equipped via semiconductor detectors. These XRD equipments record imeras in two methods, either continuous scans or step scanning. In consistent scans, the detector moves in circular activities around the object, while a beam of x-ray is constantly swarm at the detector. Pulses of power are plotted via respect to diffractivity angle. The action scan technique is the more renowned method. It is much more reliable than continuous scans. In this strategy, the detector collects data at a solitary resolved angle at a time. To encertain that the occurrence beam is constant, XRD machines are equipped via a Soller slit. This acts prefer polarized sunglasses by arranging random x-ray beams right into a stack of neatly arranged waves parallel to the aircraft of the detector.

X-Ray Imaging and CT Scans

Radiography provides x-rays to check out product that cannot be checked out by the human eye by identifying areas of various density and composition.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsRadiography supplies x-rays to take pictures of products through in an item that have the right to not be viewed. They shoot x-ray beams via the object, and also collect the rays on film or a detector on the other side. Some of the rays are absorbed right into the denser materials, and also this is just how the image is developed.X-ray radiographs take images of all the products within an object superimposed on each other.The traditional, superapplied imeras deserve to be advantageous for a number of applications, yet CT scans enable the observer to check out simply the preferred sections of a material.Modern CT scans can also take all the slices, or layers, and also arvariety them into a three-dimensional depiction of the object.Key Termsradiography: The usage of X-rays to view a non-uniformly composed product such as the human body.tomography: Imaging by sections or sectioning.superimposed: Positioned on or over something else, especially in layers


X-ray imaging, or radiography, provided x-rays to watch product within the body that cannot be seen by the humale eye by identifying locations of different thickness and complace. CT Scans usage the assistance of a computer to take this indevelopment, and also generate 3 dimensional imperiods.

X-ray Imaging

X-ray radiographs are developed by projecting a beam of X-rays towards an item, in clinical cases, a component of the humale body. Depending on the physical properties of the object (density and composition), some of the X-rays can be partially absorbed. The portion of the rays that are not absorbed then pass with the object and also are tape-recorded by either film or a detector, choose in a camera. This gives the observer via a 2 dimensional depiction of all the components of that object superenforced on each various other. mirrors an image of a human elbow.



Tomography refers to imaging by sections, or sectioning. demonstprices this principle. The three-dimensional picture is damaged down right into sections. (S1) reflects a area from the left and also (S2) shows a section from the ideal.

CT Scans

CT scans, or computed tomography scans use a combination of X-ray radiography and also tomography to develop slices of locations of the humale body. Doctors have the right to analyze the location, and also based on the capacity of the material to block the X-ray beam, understand also even more about the material. shows a CT Scan of a huguy brain. Doctors deserve to cross recommendation the images via well-known properties of the very same product and recognize if there are any type of inconsistencies or troubles. Although mostly these scans are shown as in, the indevelopment taped deserve to be used to develop a 3 dimensional photo of the area. mirrors a three dimensional photo of a mind that was made by compiling CT Scans.

Specialty Microscopes and also Contrast

Microscopes are instruments that let the humale eye see objects that would certainly otherwise be too small.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsFor better resolution, it is crucial that there is many contrast between the photo and also the background.Microscopes are classified by what interacts via the object, such as light or electrons. They are additionally classified by whether they take images by scanning a small at a time or by taking images of the whole object at once.Some prevalent forms of specialty microscopes are scanning electron micrscopes (SEM), transmission electron microscopes (TEM), both of which are electron microscopes, and also atomic pressure microscopes (ATM) which is a scanning probe microscopic lense.Key Termscontrast: A distinction in lightness, brightness and/or hue between two colors that makes them more or less distinguishable

Microscopes are tools that let the huguy eye check out objects that would certainly otherwise be also little. Tright here are many kind of forms of microscopes: optical microscopes, transmission electron microscopes, scanning electron microscopes and scanning probe microscopes.

Microscope Classes

One way to team microscopes is based on how the image is generated via the microscopic lense. Here are three means we have the right to classify microscopes:

1. ) Light or Photon – optical microscopes

2. ) Electrons – electron microscopes

3. ) Probe – scanning probe microscopes.

Microscopes deserve to also be classified based upon whether they analyze the sample by scanning a point at a time (scanning electron microscopes), or by analyzing the entire sample at once (transmission electron microscopes).

Types of Microscopes

In optical microscopes, the much better the comparison between the image and also the surchallenge it is being regarded on, the much better the resolution will certainly be to the viewer. Tbelow are many type of illumination techniques to generate improved contrast. These techniques incorporate “dark field” and also “bideal field.” With the dark field method the light is scattered by the object and also the image appears to the observer on a dark background. With the bright field method the object is illuminated from below to boost the contrast in the photo watched by viewers.Transmission Electron Microscope: The TEM passes electrons through the sample, and also permits civilization to check out objects that are normally not seen by the naked eye. A beam of electrons is transmitted with an ultra thin specimales, connecting with the specimales as it passes with. This interactivity develops an image that is enhanced and also concentrated onto an imaging device.Scanning Electron Microscopes: Referred to as SEM, these microscopes look at the surface of objects by scanning them via a fine electron beam. The electron beam of the microscope interacts through the electrons in the sample and produces signals that can be detected and also have actually indevelopment around the topography and also complace.Atomic Force Microscopy: The AFM is a scanning probe form of microscopy via extremely high resolution and is just one of the foremany tools for imaging at the nanorange. The mechanical probe feels the surchallenge through a cantilever with a sharp reminder. The deflection of the guideline is then measured utilizing a laser spot that is reflected from the surconfront of the cantilever before.

Limits of Resolution and also Circular Aperatures

In optical imaging, tbelow is a fundamental limit to the resolution of any kind of optical system that is because of diffraction.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsDue to the fact that impacts of diffraction come to be a lot of significant for waves whose wavelength is around comparable to the dimensions of the diffracting objects, the wavesize of the imaging beam sets a basic limit on the resolution of any optical mechanism.The Abbe diffractivity limit for a microscope is given as extd = fraclambda2 ( extnsin heta ) .Because the diffraction limit is proportional to wavesize, to boost the resolution, shorter wavelengths can be used such as UV and X-ray microscopes.Key Termsdiffraction: The bfinishing of a wave roughly the edges of an opening or an obstacle.nanostructure: Any produced framework having actually a scale in between molecular and microscopic.aperture: The diameter of the aperture that restricts the width of the light path with the whole device. For a telescope, this is the diameter of the objective lens (e.g., a telescope may have a 100 cm aperture).

The resolution of an optical imaging system (e.g., a microscopic lense, telescope, or camera) deserve to be restricted by determinants such as imperfections in the lenses or misalignment. However before, there is a standard maximum to the resolution of any type of optical mechanism that is due to diffraction (a wave nature of light). An optical device through the capacity to develop images through angular resolution as good as the instrument’s theoretical limit is shelp to be diffractivity restricted.

For telescopes through circular apertures, the dimension of the smallest function in an image that is diffractivity restricted is the size of the Airy disc, as displayed in. As one decreases the size of the aperture in a lens, diffractivity increases and also the ring attributes from diffractivity come to be more influential. Similarly, when imaged objects obtain smaller sized, attributes from diffraction start to blur the boundary of the object. Since effects of diffractivity end up being many significant for waves whose wavelength is around equivalent to the dimensions of the diffracting objects, the wavesize of the imaging beam sets a fundamental limit on the resolution of any kind of optical system.

The Abbe Diffraction Limit for a Microscope

The observation of sub-wavesize frameworks through microscopes is tough bereason of the Abbe diffractivity limit. In 1873, Ernst Abbe uncovered that light, via wavesize λ, traveling in a medium with refractive index n, cannot be converged to a spot through a radius much less than:

extd = fraclambda2 ( extnsin heta ) .

The denominator extnsin heta is referred to as the numerical aperture and also can reach around 1.4 in modern-day optics, hence the Abbe limit is around d=λ/2. With green light approximately 500 nm, the Abbe limit is 250 nm which is large compared to the majority of nanostructures, or biological cells with sizes on the order of 1μm and internal organelles which are much smaller sized. Using a 500 nm beam, you cannot (in principle) settle any attributes with size less than around 250 nm.

Improving Resolution

To increase the resolution, shorter wavelengths have the right to be provided such as UV and also X-ray microscopes. These approaches sell better resolution however are expensive, experience from lack of contrast in organic samples and also might damage the sample. Tright here are methods for developing images that show up to have actually greater resolution than enabled by basic usage of diffraction-restricted optics. Although these approaches improve some element of resolution, they primarily involve an huge increase in price and intricacy. Normally the method is just proper for a little subcollection of imaging troubles.


An aberration, or distortion, is a failure of rays to converge at one focus because of constraints or defects in a lens or mirror.

Key Takeaways

Key PointsTright here are many kind of forms of aberrations, including chromatic, spherical, comatic, astigmatism, and also barrel distortion.Chromatic aberrations occur due to the reality that lenses have actually various refrenergetic indexes for various wavelengths, and also therefore colors. These aberrations occur right on the edges of imperiods in between light and also dark locations of the image.Mirrors carry out not have chromatic aberrations bereason they carry out not count on the index of refractivity, however quite the index of reflection, which is independent of wavelength.Comatic aberrations are due to imperfections in lenses and reason the allude resource to be off-facility. This deserve to reason imperiods to appear pear-shaped, or reason images to have tails, as through comets.Key Termsdistortion: (optics) an aberration that reasons magnification to readjust over the area of view.refraction: Changing of a light ray’s direction once it passes with variations in issue.aberration: The convergence to different foci, by a lens or mirror, of rays of light emanating from one and the same suggest, or the deviation of such rays from a solitary focus; a defect in a concentrating device that stays clear of the intfinished focal allude.

The Basics of Aberrations

An aberration is the faientice of rays to converge at one focus bereason of constraints or defects in a lens or mirror. Basically, an aberration is a distortion of a picture due to the truth that lenses will never behave precisely according to the means they were modeled. Types of aberrations vary because of the size, material composition, or thickness of a lens, or the position of an object.

Chromatic Aberration

A chromatic aberration, additionally referred to as achromatism or chromatic distortion, is a distortion of colors. This aberration happens once the lens falls short to emphasis all the colors on the very same convergence allude. This happens bereason lenses have actually a different index of refractivity for different wavelengths of light. The refrenergetic index decreases through raising wavelength. These aberrations or distortions take place on the edges of color borders between bappropriate and also dark areas of an image. Due to the fact that the index of refractivity of lenses depends on color or wavelength, images are produced at various locations and via different magnifications for various colors. reflects chromatic aberration for a single convex lens. Due to the fact that violet rays have a higher refrenergetic index than red, they are bent even more and also concentrated closed to the lens. shows a two-lens device making use of a diverging lens to partly correct for this, yet it is virtually impossible to carry out so totally.

The regulation of reflection is independent of wavelength, and also therefore mirrors carry out not have actually this difficulty. This is why it is helpful to use mirrors in telescopes and also various other optical devices.

Comatic Aberration

A comatic aberration, or coma, occurs when the object is off-facility. Different components of a lens of a mirror execute not refract or reflect the picture to the same suggest, as shown in. They can likewise be result of an imperfection in the lens or other component and bring about off- axis suggest sources. These aberrations can reason objects to show up pear-shaped. They can also reason stars to show up distorted or show up to have tails, as through comets.

See more: Mc Why Might Stores Choose To List $5 Items For &Quot;Two For $10&Quot;?

Other Aberrations

Spherical aberrations are a form of aberration wbelow rays converging from the outer edges of a lens converge to a focus closer to the lens, and rays closer to the axis emphasis additionally. Astigmatisms are likewise a form of aberration in the lenses of the eyes where rays that propagate in two perpendicular planes have different foci. This have the right to inevitably reason a monochromatic photo to distort vertically or horizontally. Another aberration or distortion is a barrel distortion wbelow photo magnification decreases through the distance from the optical axis. The noticeable impact is that of a photo which has actually been mapped about a spright here, prefer in a fisheye lens.